Wireless computers and the surrounding environment INTRODUCTION: The Development


Sensor Networks (WSN) based on IOT

                                                     KORITALA SAITEJA 1, RAYAPATI

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of Computer Science & Engineering

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wireless sensor network with a large number of sensor nodes can be used as an
effective tool for gathering data in
various situations. Today sensors are everywhere. We take it for granted, but
there are sensors in our vehicles, in our smart phones. One of the major issues
in WSN is developing an energy efficient routing protocol which has a significant
impact on the overall life time of the sensor network. In now a days, We Have
Seen a New Era of Short Range Wireless Technologies like Wi-Fi (32 meters), Bluetooth
(100 meters), ZigBee(10 – 100) 2, Emerging in front Of Us. The Very Large
Amount Of Information That Is Consequently Generated Could Be Profitably
Handled Using “Cloud” Services, I.E.
Flexible And Powerful Hardware/Software Frameworks Capable To Deliver Computing
As A Service Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Has Been Employed To Collect Data
About Physical Phenomenon In Various Applications Such As Habitat Monitoring .
A WSN can generally be described as a network of nodes that cooperatively sense
and may control the environment, enabling interaction between persons or
computers and the surrounding environment



INTRODUCTION: The Development In
Wireless Sensor Networks Can Be Used In Monitoring
And Controlling Various The Development In Wireless Sensor Networks
Parameters In The Agriculture Field, Weather Station Field. The Sensor Network
Hardware Platforms Are Basically Low-Power
Embedded System’s With Some Different Sensors they are Onboard Sensors and
Analog Input/outputs Ports to Connect Sensors. Like Hardware and Software   Should Also Be Developed, Including Operating
system Sensor/Hardware Drivers, Networking Protocols and Application Specific
Sensing and Processing Algorithms.  WSNs
nowadays usually include sensor nodes, actuator nodes, gateways and clients. A
large number of sensor nodes deployed
randomly inside of or near the monitoring area form networks through
self-organization. Sensor nodes monitor the collected data to transmit along to
other sensor nodes by hopping. The
sensor node is one of the main parts of a WSN. The hardware of a sensor node
generally includes four parts they are

Ø  power
and power management module

Ø  Sensor

Ø  Micro

Ø  Wireless




The Above Diagram Shows The Overall System
Architecture Of Environmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network System 3. Security
is one of the most important research issues on WSNs for internet Things. In an
effort to address this challenge, S. Jiang et al. design a lightweight mobile
authentication protocol for individual mobile network nodes which consumes less
communication and computation recourse and, in the meantime, protects the
privacy of mobile sensor nodes Sensor Node Is a Major Part in This System. It
Is Responsible For Information Or Sensor Data. 
Raspberry Pi Manages Multiple
Sensor Nodes. The hardware
platforms we develop are used to validate a generalized architecture that is
technology independent. Our general architecture contains a single central
controller that performs both
application and protocol level processing Design and Implementation of
Environment Monitoring System Using Raspberry-Pi Which Contains Interfacing with
Various Sensors Real Time Data Will Be Collected by All the Sensors and Will Be
Fetched by the Webserver. The Gateway Node Of Wireless Sensor Network That Is Raspberry for Base Station Consist Of
Database Server And Web Server In One Single-Board Computer Hardware Platform,
It Reduces The Cost And Complexity Of Deployment. Sensor Node Sense the Data from
the Sensor And That Data Receives the End Tag.

Characteristics of Wireless Sensor

Ø  The consumption of Power limits for nodes with

Ø  Capacity to handle with node failures

Ø  Some mobility of nodes and Heterogeneity of

Ø  Scalability to large scale of distribution

Ø  Capability to ensure strict environmental conditions

Ø  Simple to use

Ø  Cross-layer design



Ambient Energy
Harvesting Technology:

Nodes Need An Energy Source, And Ambient
Energy Harvesting From External Sources Are Used To Power Small Autonomous
Sensors Such As Those Based On MEMS Technology.
These Systems Are Often Very Small And Require Little Power, However Their
Applications Are Limited By The Reliance On Battery Power. A control circuit
with the ultra-low power consumption
components is designed to prevent further energy loss when the voltage dropped
below a given cutoff voltage and to make sure the super capacitor charging
circuit works close to the maximum power point of a solar panel and to the
operating voltage of wireless sensor node. It Cannot Only Be Realized By Conventional
Optical Cell Power Generation, But Also Through Miniature Piezoelectric
Crystals, Micro Oscillators, Thermoelectric Power Generation Elements.

The methods
which have been studied to extend the life cycle of WSNs are related to two
issues, namely, the energy supply and energy
consumption. If the sensor nodes are used for a suitable working
environment with less demanding of size and running time, the chemical battery
will become an economic choice. However, when WSNs are requested to work for a
long time, the chemical battery cannot be the only energy source in many
applications where a huge number of sensors are distributed or the place is
extremely difficult to access for replacing or recharging the battery is an
uneconomical or impossible behavior.

Development on 5G Wireless Networks Advances in
Wireless Technology: Mobile
and Wireless Communication systems will allow 5G support for the expected
increase in data volumes and broadening
in the range of application domains. 5G systems are built upon the evolution of
existing technologies complemented by new radio concepts that are designed to
meet the new and challenging requirements. These developments will lead to an
avalanche of mobile and wireless traffic
volume, projected to increase a thousand-fold over the next decade.
Furthermore, some applications will impose additional and very diverse
requirements on mobile and wireless communication systems that 5G will have to
support 4.

Distributed Solution
At The Entrance Of The Network, The Distributed Solution Divides Transmission
Tasks Into Several Levels According To The Task Requirement. Each Part Of The
Network Schedules Different Levels Of Tasks According To The Local Network Operating
Conditions, To Ensure A Wide-Area And Real-Time Protection. Distributed Solution
Features. Each sensor estimates
its position by iteratively solving a set of local spatially-constrained
programs. A
Relatively High Robustness, So Damage to Parts of The Network Does Not Affect
The Entire Network. Besides. A Proposed Architecture Is Which Is A Wide-Area
Transmission Network Architecture Establishing A Cross-Regional, Real Time Data Integration and Sharing
Mechanism in the Smart Grid. The placement problem asks how to determine the minimum
number of sensors required and their locations in I to guarantee that I is
k-covered and the network is connected WSN Is Based on Mature IP, And IP’s Best-Effort
Service Model Is Both Simple and Unchanging, Well Suited for Distributed

Centralized Solution in

The Centralized Solution, From The Overall
View, Manages Heterogeneous Networks Composed Of Wide Area Networks In A Uni?ed
Way. To Meet Such Needs As The Transmission Tasks’ Delay, Throughput, Reliability,
Etc. The Centralized Solution Reserves Communication Resources and Conducts
Cooperative Scheduling In Various Heterogeneous Networks, Which Ensures the
Overall End Performance Requirements. A Centralized Solution Is Superior In
That It Can Optimize Global Scheduling With Better Transmission Performance. Nevertheless,
Complexity Is Its Weak Point So It Can Only Be Installed On Certain Private
Networks In Speci?c Areas.


WSN Applications In The Infrastructure
Systems: The General Architecture Of Online Monitoring Systems For Transmission
Lines Is Shown In Above Figure Currently, Some Provincial Power Companies Of
The State Grid Corporation Of China (SGCC) Are Promoting Applications Of WSN Technology
In The Online Monitoring Of Transmission Line. For Example, Since 2013, Liaoning
And Ningxia Electric Power Companies Are Developing Demonstration Projects
Based On WSN For Transmission Lines Online Monitoring System.

Security in WSN: In these networks, a large number of
sensor nodes are deployed to monitor a vast field, where the operational
conditions are most often harsh or even hostile. However, the nodes in WSNs
have severe resource constraints due to their lack of processing power, limited
memory and energy. Since these networks are usually deployed in remote places
and left unattended, they should be equipped with security mechanisms to defend
against attacks such as node capture, physical tampering, eavesdropping. To
reduce the communication cost of the randomized multicast approach, Parron et
al. have proposed an alternative algorithm- the line selected multicast

Ø  Attacks on secrecy and authentication: standard
cryptographic techniques can protect the secrecy and authenticity of communication
channels from outsider attacks such as eavesdropping, packet replay attacks,
and modification or spoofing of packets

Ø   Attacks
on network availability: attacks on availability are often referred to as
denial-of-service attacks. DoS attacks may target any layer of a sensor

Ø  Stealthy attack against service integrity: in a stealthy
attack, the goal of the attacker is to make the network accept a false data
value. For example, an attacker compromises a sensor node and injects a false
data value through that sensor node.

Advantages of Wireless Sensor Networks:

Ø  Network arrangements can be carried out
without immovable infra-structure.

Ø  Execution pricing is inexpensive.

Ø  It avoids plenty of wiring.

Ø  Apt for the non-reachable places like
mountains, over the sea, rural areas and deep forests.

Ø  Flexible if there is a casual situation when
an additional workstation is required.

Ø  It can be opened by using a centralized monitoring




The Capability to Interconnect Every
Possible Device, Opens New Scenarios in WSN’s. Cloud Computing Services And The
Availability Of Powerful And Inexpensive
Smart Devices Allow To Optimize Information Management, Sharing Measurement
Results And Improving Quality Of Services. However, there may be situations,
such as battlefield environments,
where the base station and possibly the sensors need to be mobile. Wireless
sensor networks (WSNs) enable new applications and require non-conventional
paradigms for protocol design due to several constraints. The mobility of
sensor nodes has a great influence on sensor network topology and thus raises
many issues in secure routing protocols. Current studies on WSNs focus on some
topics such as key management, secure routing, secure data aggregation, and
intrusion detection. This single-sink scenario suffers from the lack of
scalability: by increasing the number of nodes




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Sensor Network System Design Using Raspberry Pi And Arduino For Environmental
Monitoring Applications”, Elsevier The 9th International Conference On Future
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