Translation. Translation is the series of events when ribosomes synthesize specific proteins through a mRNA transcript that has been created in the process of transcription. In the beginning, mRNA connects with any ribosome so it can be decoded a single codon made up of three nucleotides at a time. Each specific codon is made for a certain amino acid. When every codon is read, an amino acid that matches with it is enabled. Any tRNA molecule has two ends; one that contains a particular binding site for a specific amino acid, and a second one that contains a particular sequence of nucleotides (an anticodon that can base pair with a codon). Viable tRNA molecules hook onto and transport the now activated amino acid to a ribosome. Anticodons connect with other codons to move the amino acid to the proper area. Another tRNA molecule follows this system again, as the original tRNA molecule lets go of its amino acid to give it to the second tRNA. Together, those two different amino acids create a peptide bond through the energy collected from a cell’s ATP. The ribosome analyzes the following codon, and a new tRNA molecule follows along to repeat the process yet again. As the new tRNA molecules travel, the amino acids they contain link, forming a growing number of peptide bonds. After some time, a polypeptide chain is created. The polypeptide chain goes through its changes to serve its purpose as a protein.The creation of a polypeptide based on a specific area of genetic code in DNA is referred to as protein synthesis. Protein synthesis happens throughout two different stages. The first is transcription. Transcription occurs in the nucleus of a cell. The second is translation, which occurs in a cell’s cytoplasm. Transcription is quite similar to the replication of DNA, seeing how one specific DNA strand is used as a sort of outline to synthesize a strand of RNA. In the opening segments of transcription, the RNA enzyme polymerase identifies a certain base arrangement that equals the specific protein in the DNA with the name of a promoter, and fuses to it. After that, base pairing takes place when an enzyme unwinds the DNA strand and then assembles bases that match up with the specific DNA strand undergoing copying. If the DNA strand is what holds the base adenine, the enzyme would pair it up it with the base of uracil instead of the base thymine. RNA polymerase carries on moving alongside the DNA in a 3-inch to 5-inch path up until it gets to the termination code. In eukaryotic cells, the newly-created mRNA transcript needs to be modified more before it is usable. A cap is attached to the 5-inch end, and a poly-A tail, which has 200 to 150 adenines, is connected to the 3-inch side of the molecule.