Touch a touch on the display screen or by

Touch Screen Monitor

Introduction:

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Touch Screen is a
computer display screen which works like an input device and an output device.
Users can give input or control other information processing system simply
through a touch on the display screen or by the use of other stylus pen as by
using stylus pen user did not need to use the mouse and the keyboard to give
input to the computer. Also, interface works like a pointing device, mostly
like keyboards and mouse. Touch Screen detect the location of the touch on the
display screen and then works on it. As with the use of touch screen monitor
users can directly interact with what they seen on the computer. Today touch
screen has become an important part for many common devices like as in the
Electronic Gaming Devices, personal computers. Also within the few time this
technology has played an important role in design of digital appliances as in
Personal Digital Assistants (PADs). This interface works like a pointing
device, mostly like keyboards and mouse.

History and Development:

It
took a lot time and important level of technological experiments to reach the
level of touch screen we are using today. It is considered that first
finger-driven touch screen was invented by “E.A Johnson” in 1965-1967 at the
Royal Radar Establishment in Malvern, United Kingdom. And he published a
complete description of his invention in an article which was published in
Electronic Letters. Moreover, the first resistive touch screen was invented by
G. Samuel Hurst in 1970s at the University of Kentucky. In 1971, a touch screen
sensor was developed and was called “Elo graph” And the first version was
produced in 1982. At the same time in 1982 Nimish Mehta at University of
Toronto developed a multitouch devices which was most likely human-controlled.
It was a touch-tablet not a touchscreen. It has a glass panel and a camera
behind this panel can easily detect the location of touch. Furthermore, in
1983, the computer manufacturing company, Hewlett-Packard introduced the
HP-150, and it used MS-DOS and CRT covered by infrared emitters which can sense
and detect where the user touch came on the Screen. The 1990s meet users with
touch screen smartphones and handhelds. In 1993, IBM and BELL launched
smartphones called Simon with some new featured as calendar, notepad and fax.
Also, Apple released the Newton PDA with handwriting recognition. With the time
touch screen get popular for video games with the release of Nintendo DS in
2004. This technology has changed the process of multi-touch technology.

As
with the passage of the time multipoint touchscreen can detect the more than
one finger on the screen. With the improvement of technology the cost of is
also increased. Now it is easy to find this technology in airplanes,
automobiles and in machine control system.

Main Component of Touch Screen: –  Touch screen has used numerous number of
technologies to perfectly find the position of a finger on the display screen
by using electrical, mechanical, and optical sensing. There are three main
component of the touch screen which plays a key role in the touch screen which
are described below: –

1)      Touch Sensor: – A touch screen sensor is
a glass panel with a highly touch responsive surface.  It is placed on the top of the display screen
so that it can captures and records any physical touch or viewable area of the
video screen. Within the touch sensor there is flow of an electricity or signal
going through it and a touch on screen causes a voltage or change in the signal
and further this change is used to determine the location of the touch.

2)      Controller: – The controller is a vital component
in the touch screen as it is a small PC card which connects the touch sensor
and a PC. In takes the input information from the touch sensor and converts it
into information that PC can understand. By considering the controller it is
easy to determine that which type of connection is required for PC. The
controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors.

3)      Software Driver: – This software driver always provides
a software update for the PC system and allow touch screen and computer to work
together. The software driver is an interpreter which tells computer’s
operating system how to convert the touch event information or every raw data
coming from the controller. Most of the touch screen drivers today are a
mouse-emulation kind which makes easy for users to click same as mouse at the
location on the screen. So, user did not need to have any different software
programs and they can do work with the existing software.

Types of Touchscreen Technology:
There are several types of touchscreen technology and major usable are
explained below: –

1)     
Resistive:
A resistive touch screen is comprising of two most important layers, composed
of glass panel and a film screen. These are separated by a little gap between
them. The upper layer has coat on the underside layer and under this coat there
is another resistive layer. A pressure is applied to one of the layer, it is
sensed by the other layer and when we touch the screen with fingers or with Stylus
pen at that time the two-metallic layer get connected with each other,
resulting in electrical flow and location can be detected.

2)     
Surface Acoustic Wave: SAW technology use the ultrasonic waves that
passes over the touchscreen panel, formed glass sheet. When user touch the
panel then some portion of the energy is absorbed by panel and this change in
the waves is detected by the touchscreen controller to determine the location
of touch.

3)     
Capacitive: A capacitive touchscreen where a thin sheet
of glass is on one side having a layer of transparent conductor and charge is
applied. A touch on the glass will do some changes in the amount of this charge
and this change is noticed by the by using a sensor and this change is used to
locate the position of touch.

4)     
Infrared Grid: An infrared touch screen is different type of
technology. It uses a frame which surrounds the display of the LEDs on one side
and on the other side it has photodetector. The photodetector detects the
disruption in the pattern of the LED beams. As these LEDs light cross the
screen in vertical and horizontal patterns so, it is easy for sensor to detect
the location of touch.

5)     
Optical Imaging: This is completely new development of
touchscreen which uses array of infrared LEDs placed on adjacent edged of
display. And these two or more photosensors are placed on the opposites of
each, mostly on the edges of the screen. The infrared and photosensors create a
pattern of light beam when users touch with fingers or with stylus pen to
screen then density of light beam decreased and from that place where user
touched location and size of touch object can be find easily.

6)     
Acoustic Pulse
Recognition: This is
of somewhat different kind of technology in which a touch at any position on
the glass overly, produced a sound wave which generates a unique signal. This
signal is detected by three or more little transducers attached to the edge of
display and these signals are matched with the lists corresponding to every
position on the surface for determination the touch screen.

Uses of Touch Screen: – With
the passage of the time touch screen has became a considerable of interface
technology either it is for professional or for personal use. Touch screen has
found use in devices ranging from cell phone to smartphones. When initially it
came to the market people liked this and they went to use this technology as it
was giving a lot of new features to users. Touchscreen technology helps us
operate the devices faster. With touch technology users can easily coordinate
at the right location. Touch screen has high durability as keyboards or keypads
has separate keys, any one of which if breaks or get damage than it became
difficult to work but this problem is not with the touch screen. We use touch
screen technology for many purpose as: –

·        
In Gaming machines.

·        
ATM and public transport machines.

·        
Point of sales device.

·        
Restaurant System.

·        
Employee time clocks.

·        
Industrial process clock system.

·        
Computer Printer and Medical Monitors.

·        
Customer self-service

Advantages of Touch Screen: –

·        
Touchscreen have limited button to operate
so we can have a big screen.

·        
It is easy to clean the screen without
button or less button.

·        
With multi-touch function various
“zoom-in/zoom-out” operation or inputs are possible.

·        
It provides more security.

·        
Text can be displayed in any languages,
depends upon what user needs.

·        
It provides Fast access to any type of
digital media.

Disadvantages of Touch Screen: –

·        
It cost more than other alternative
devices.

·        
Users must be close to screen to type
something on screen.

·        
It consumes more battery than
alternate devices.

·        
It is hard to see the touchscreen in the
direct light.

·        
As for touch screen extra technologies are
added to display which makes devices heavier.

·        
If the screen crashed than whole will not
responsive and there will not be any way to do work.

Summary: – Touch
screen technology has become an important part of the all the devices as it
saves the users time to provides input on screen. Touch screen are which reduce
human efforts and we can save space as we did not need any keyboard and mouse.
Also, touch screen is the most accurate and fastest pointing devices and it is
an electronic display that can locate the location of touch with finger and
with stylus pen. User can interact directly with the display screen without the
use of any keyboard and mouse. All this shows that Touchscreen has a positive
influence on the users. Moreover, the popularity of smartphones, PDAs and
tablet computers, video games are driving the demand of touch screen. At the
end, I want to say that touch screen has became more important and common role
in everyday society and users has high demand for touch screen technology.