Tomatoes, is altered to contain a segment of DNA

Tomatoes, squash and potatoes are among the most common genetically modified
foods. Farmer produce fresher and larger crop by inserting information from one organism into another.
This breakthrough in technology
to modify genes has
surpassed its functionality.
These processes can be dangerous
because they threaten human health, the environment and global economy. {13 (words per sentence) +12 (multisyllabic words) = 25; 25
* .4 = 10 Fog Index}

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is altered
to contain a segment of DNA from another organism. Modern recombinant DNA technology enables the fusion of DNA. Since the 1980s, this technology has been utilized
for genetic and
protein copying to determine
gene function used to create models for human disease. The modified crops have bacterial genes that
encode for pest or herbicide
resistance. This is harmful because pests and weeds become resistant to the chemicals being used. {15
(words per sentence) +15 (multisyllabic words) = 30; 30 * .4 = 12 Fog Index}

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 “For years, humans have been genetically enhancing
other organisms through
selective breeding.
This enhancement that generates
the most concern goes a step beyond selective breeding. Technology allows the transfer of genes between organisms. A tomato plant’s beetle resistance relies on a
gene from a bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis), which scientists inserted into
the tomato plant’s
genome. This gene, called cry1Ac, encodes a protein that is poisonous to certain
types of insects, including the beetle. (1,2,7)”  {15
(words per sentence) +13 (multisyllabic words) = 28; 28 * .4 = 11.2 Fog Index}

“Gene transfer technology is a sophisticated version of
a cut-and-paste operation.
Once the desired gene is identified
in the organism’s genome,
it can be cut out, transferred to the target plant, and pasted into its genome.
(The illustration to
the right describes a transfer method called the “gene-gun” approach).
Once the new gene is introduced,
the plant is bred to create a new strain that passes the gene from generation to generation. (1,2,8)” {18
(words per sentence) + 9 (multisyllabic words) = 27; 27 * .4 = 10.8 Fog Index}

soy, milk, yellow crookneck squash, zucchini, alfalfa,
canola, and sugar
beets are some of the most common genetically modified organisms today. ”70% of corn grown in the
United States are GMO’s.” (2,1,1) GMO’s have
raised concerns about possible
health problems. “Groups opposed to the genetic change of food have termed this practice
and its subsequent products
“Frankenfood.” Though more research is needed, the FDA found no serious food safety
issues associated with
these products, although they are always alert for possible food allergens.” (3,2,1) {17 (words per
sentence) +13 (multisyllabic words) = 30; 30 * .4 = 12 Fog Index}

“GM foods
are classified into
one of three generations.”
(4,1,4) ” First-generation
crops have enhanced input traits, such as herbicide tolerance, better insect resistance, and better tolerance to environmental stress.” (4,1,4)
”Second-generation crops
include those with added-value output traits, such as nutrient enhancement for animal feed. “(4,1,4)
“Third-generation crops
include those that produce pharmaceuticals,
improve the processing of bio-based fuels, or produce products beyond food and
fiber. “(4,1,4) {16
(words per sentence) +12 (multisyllabic words) = 28; 28 * .4 = 11.2 Fog Index}

“The bulk of the science on GM
safety points in one direction.” (2,1,7) “Take it from David Zilberman, a U.C.
Berkeley agricultural and
environmental economist and
one of the few researchers considered credible by both agricultural chemical companies and their
critics.” (2,1,7) “He argues that the benefits of GM crops greatly outweigh the health
risks, which so far remain theoretical.”
(2,1,7) “The use of GM crops “has lowered the price of food,” Zilberman says. “(2,1,7)
“It has increased farmer safety by allowing them to use less pesticide. It has raised
the output of corn, cotton and soy by 20 to 30 percent, allowing some people to
survive who would not have without it. If it were more widely adopted around
the world, the price of food would go lower, and fewer people would die of
hunger.” (2,1,7) {19 (words per sentence) +10 (multisyllabic words) =
29; 29 * .4 = 11.6 Fog Index}

“In the future, Zilberman says,
those advantages will
become all the more significant.”
(2,1,8) “The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that the world
will have to grow 70 percent more food by 2050 just to keep up with population growth.” (2,1,8)
“Climate change will make much of the world’s arable land more difficult to farm.” (2,1,8) “GM crops, ” Zilberman
says,” could produce higher yields, grow in dry and salty land, withstand high
and low temperatures,
and tolerate insects,
disease and herbicides.
“(2,1,8) {20 (words per sentence) +9 (multisyllabic words) = 29; 29 * .4
= 11.6 Fog Index}


There are many issues related to the growth and consumption of genetically engineered food.
They hold potential to
increase the nutritional value
of food and productivity.
The ultimate choice
on genetically modified foods
should be placed onto a consumer, who is familiar with GMO’s and not held in the dark by the
government.  {17 (words per sentence) +11 (multisyllabic
words) = 28; 28 * .4 = 11.2 Fog Index}


learning center, genetic science. “Genetically Modified
Foods.” Genetically Modified Foods, Genetic Science Learning Center, 11 Sept.


Freedman, David H. “The Truth about Genetically Modified Food.” Scientific American, David H. Freedman, 1 Sept. 2013,


Schneider, Keith R. “Genetically Modified Food Sources.” 1
Sept. 2009, doi:10.1016/c2011-0-08818-x.


Young, Caroline. “7 Most Common Genetically Modified
Foods.” The Huffington Post,, 3 Dec. 2013,