Today, and the world outside, productively”.1 Lack of time

Today, alienation has become one of the most pivotal issues of the time and the modern age has rightly been called „the age of alienation?. In every affair of the world, today, man feels alienated and isolated from himself and detached from the center of his world. Erick Fromm rightly observes, “the alienated person is out of touch with himself as he is out of touch with any other person. He, like the others, is experienced as things are experienced; with the senses and with common sense, but at the same time without being related to oneself and the world outside, productively”.1 Lack of time and heavy work burden compels him to work as a machine. He has no time to think about his „primary self? and remains busy to make his „secondary sense of self? meaningful and worthwhile. His journey from10human being to a sophisticated modern man has alienated and isolated him from his own being.The motif of literature, as observed by Jean Paul Sartre, is “both to disclose the world and to offer it as a task to the generosity of the reader. It is to have recourse to the consciousness of others in order to make one?s self be recognized as essential to the totality of being: it is to wish to live this essentiality by means of interposed persons.” 2 So exile and alienation of the modern man from society and self is the major concern in world literature. Basically alienation is, “the state of feeling of estranged or separated from one?s milieu, work, product of work or self”.3 So, in alienation, a person is out of touch with himself as well as with society. On the other hand though exile appears as a synonym of alienation, but in its literal sense it is different.Since time immemorial the term exile has been associated with the idea of physical banishment or separation from one?s country or society, either voluntary or forced. In its conventional sense, exile is a form of political punishment where exiled person had to be away from his home city or state. His return is strictly refused or in cases he is threatened with imprisonment or with death penalty upon his return. Encyclopedia Britannica explains exile as-A prolonged absence from one?s country imposed by vested authority as a punitive measure. Exile and banishment probably originated among early people as a means of punishment. The offender was made an outcast and deprived of the comfort and protection of11his group. Exile was practiced by the Greeks chiefly in cases of homicide, although ostracism was form of exile imposed for political reasons.4In present prospects exile has many meanings, as separation, banishment, withdrawal, expatriation and displacement which result in emotional expression of loss and manifested as sorrow and nostalgia. Though the term exile commonly used to describe an individual?s situation in a society but the term is also applied for groups, companies and even for governments. Diaspora, refugee and immigrant exile are termed as group exile. Due to foreign occupation the government of country is forced to exile, to relocate and argue its? legitimacy from outside that country.In contemporary literary and sociological study exile is multidimensional and bi-lateral phenomenon. In modern aspect of twentieth century philosophy and literature, the approaches to exile is completely changed and it is taken as, ” a result of the experience of economic modernization, mass migration, extended warfare, and the breakdown of traditional notions of individual belonging and social order.”5 Where as in post structural philosophical point of view, ontologically, exile is examined as essential state being, the outcome of essential human condition.Except this, exile can also be examined as a self imposed departure from one?s homeland, race, and milieu. It is termed as self exile. It is often described as a form of protest against the social and political circumstances which he/she does not feel suitable to live. Self exile is a feeling of estrangement from the society where one feels unable to adjust with new places/ situations and keeps distance, gradually such accepted alienation12becomes a fact of exile and ultimately such self imposed exile becomes his/her life style. His/her personal separation to the social, cultural and collective history makes him/her individual within society.The terms (exile and alienation) are used not only in literature, but these have become the eminent device to all social sciences i.e. Theology, Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy, Economics, Politics, Education, Anthropology and Management Studies etc.Like exile, alienation has also very old roots. Saint Augustine defines that due to their sinful nature human beings are alienated from God and theologically he believes that reconciliation could be achieved only through belief in Christ i.e. the spiritual God.Hegel, the famous German philosopher also deals with alienation in his theories. The concept of alienation is one of the most important and fruitful legacies of Hegel?s spiritual philosophy. For him the concept of alienation is the central account of the development of the spirit. In his famous books On Christianity and The Phenomenology of Mind, he has thoroughly discussed the concept of self development and self consciousness of human being. According him the soul or self can be developed only through a process of alienation. He further explains alienation as a journey of finite human spirit towards the infinite spirit i.e. God and in this process his all subjectiveness apart from him and ultimately he becomes an object. Hegel observes “the objectivity of deity increased in direct proportion to the increase in the corruption and slavery of men and this objectivity is in reality no more than a revelation, a manifestation of this spirit of the age… The spirit of the age was revealed13in the objectivity of its God when… it was introduced into a world alien to us, in a realm in which we had no share, where we would not acquire a place through activity, but at most by begging or conjuring our way in; it was an age in which man was a Non-ego and his God another Non-ego… In such an age the Deity sheds all its subjectivity and becomes nothing but an object”.6After Hegel?s death the Hegelian movement splits; it divides into some new groups. Very few old Hegelians remained loyal to the conservative view of Hegel?s spiritual approach. Latter on Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) neglects Hegelian views to contemporary society and developed a new and radical approach that is called socio-economic approach.Marx, Camte, Spencer and Hobhouse have developed modern economic theories. They have analysed the matter of alienation as the result of faulty economic structure. Karl Marx is considered as the most prominent thinker of the nineteenth century. His approach to alienation is basically socio-economic. As a radical socio-economic thinker he forcefully emphasizes on some issues as industrial labour, private property, social class, political power and communist society, etc.Marx and Engels in their famous work Communist Manifesto talk about the alienation of the labour force through out the capitalist world. In reference to the modern world of industrialization, they argue, “the lower strata of middle class – the small trades people, shopkeepers and retired tradesmen generally the handicraftsmen and peasants – all these gradually sink into the proletariat”.7 As proletariat, the modern working class do not14have any means of their own production, so they are compelled to sell their labour in order to exist in society, which deteriorates their standard of living. Ultimately the wide gap of living standards between bourgeois and proletariats generate the feelings of alienation between them.Thus, incredible changes in the fundamental mode of „material production? have affected the class structure of the society. It divides the society into dominant and subordinate classes and consequently in their struggle for economic, political and social advantage subordinate class feels alienated from the world of the dominate class. Marks and Engels have eloquently discussed the solutions of all these problems in their works. They neglect the then thinkers? interpretation that it is the consciousness of man that determines his living. Marks and Engels oppose the idea and establish the fact that it is „one?s social being that determines his consciousness?. Undoubtedly it is necessary to change the condition that isolates people from each other and arrange them into new social groups (communism, capitalism and working class) and referring them, “the categorical imperative to over throw to all conditions in which man is a degraded, enslaved, neglected, contemptible being”,8 where he is isolated and alienated from self and society.Despite socio-economic approach to alienation Marks has deeply discussed political alienation of human being where man feels alienated and neglected by the state. He remarks –The state does not care about the individual?s society without communion between people and that individual in his relation to such a state does not experience a15feeling of solidarity; he is only able to relate himself to it as an isolated nomad, an individual. Man?s inner life is divided in a world split up as such a way.9So Marx suggests democracy as the only way to control political alienation of man and on the other hand economic equality is necessary to avoid socio-economic alienation. For healthy political and socio-economic environment, the proper balance between labour and capital is very necessary. The faulty political and economic conditions of any state where the works of the labour are not kept in focus and on the other hand capitalists are free for mass production, consequently the rich becomes richer and poor remains poor and the latter are ultimately bound to live an alienated and humiliated life. Marx observes –The alienation of the worker in his object is expressed as follow in the laws of political economy: the more the worker produces, the less he has to consume; the more value he creates the more worthless he becomes; the more refined his product the more crude and misshapen the worker; the more civilized the product the more barbarous the worker; the more the work manifests intelligence the more the worker declines in intelligence and becomes a slave of nature.10This is the alienation of labour class. The hard reality of the world is that the present political system has raised the poverty and discrimination between classes which further increases the chance of alienation between them.16Sociologists viz. Herbert McClosky, Richard Schachat, Jan Haida, Michael Aiken, Jerald Huge, Melvin Seeman, Benjamin Zablocki and Emile Durkheim opine that alienation is a result of men?s powerlessness, meaninglessness, cultural estrangement, social isolation and self-estrangement. From sociological point of view alienation can be divided into two realms; structural and socio-psychological. Structural alienation refers to the situation where the person feels alienated from society due to its societal structure i.e. a distance between an individual and work product and an individual?s treatment on the basis of class, caste, race, gender, etc. The universal differences between privileged and unprivileged classes alienate and isolate the poor who finds it very hard to come out from the vicious circle of poverty. In this reference Jan Haida rightly remarks, “Alienation is an awareness of non-believing or non-sharing (which) reflects (one?s) exclusion of self-exclusion from society, its social and cultural participation”.11 On the other hand Richard Schacht in his book Alienation realistically differentiates between social exile and alienation. He pinpoints, “an individual who tries unsuccessfully to establish meaningful contact with others is in a different situation from one who chooses to live alone in order to achieve some special purpose”.12The social psychological feelings of alienation start with one?s realization of his powerless, meaningless and rootless existence which gradually estranges and isolates him from self and society. Powerlessness is the beginning point of one?s identity crisis or a precursor to self-estrangement. The domination by the superiors makes him feel powerless and the feelings of inferiority complex alienate him from the powerful group of superiors. The feelings of meaninglessness is related to the17emotions of individual, when he realizes that he does not have any real purpose of his own. He feels disillusioned with the whole system because his acceptances are not being fulfilled.The social isolation is basically inability to feel connected and lack of belongingness to the society. The constant rejection and humiliation of a person isolates him from the world around. In reference to social isolation Benjamin Zeblocki (1941) rightly remarks –the individual?s low expectancy for inclusion, for social acceptance, expressed typically through feelings of loneliness or feelings of rejection or repudiation (found for example among members of minority communities, the aged and handicapped, and various kinds of less visible strangers – the neglected natives, neglected ones on the basis of class, gender, caste, race and colour of the skin, etc.13Thus, the very experience of negligence isolates man from society. The loss of self-esteem and individuality generates the feelings of self estrangement where he feels complete loss of ability to find self reward in society or his work.Psychological approach to the term (alienation) stimulates its meaning and explicates its reasons and its problems. Time and again psychologists have suggested adequate solution to all these problems. The eminent analytical psychologists, Frank Johnson, Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung and Erick Fromm have presented more detailed and analytical18way to interpret the problems of alienation and they have analysed its psychological effect on the psyche of modern man.In his limitations about nature man feels sensorial and emotional inconvenience. Sensorial and emotional inconveniences are the two psychological methods to deal with alienated psyche of man. The former (sensorial inconveniences) are the product of direct painful relation with nature and the later (emotional inconveniences) are actually the product of the reflective relationship with the nature. The realization of all these inconveniences develop the feelings of fear in the psychology of man that ultimately alienates him from his being –Alienated determinations form in the man a conception of the conveniences and inconveniences which creates an alienated respect toward the power in nature, alienated emotional states, alienated needs, alienated actions. In this way subjective consciousness develop an alienated knowledge. Alienated knowledge is false and, therefore, forms an alienated mode of the man?s living. The alienated mode of living alienates the man from the nature and thus the process develops cyclically.14Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), father of psychology, defines alienation as self estrangement caused by the split between conscious and unconscious parts of the mind. The constant blocking and suppression of a person?s feeling, emotion and sexual instinct make him less effective and throw him out of his real nature; alienate him from his actual being. Freud defines neurosis as a result of alienation from his own being and19nervousness, stress, disappointment, depression and mental break down as the effects of constant alienation.Erich Fromm (1900-1980), a prominent psychologist, in his famous book The Sane Society presents a detailed and impressive thesis about alienation of man from self and society and he analyses alienation, as an experience where man feels estranged from society and self; neither he feels himself as the „center of the world? nor develops an attachment with his own self. He defines alienation where man, “acts and feels like an automation, who never experiences any thing which is really his, who experience himself entirely as the person who thinks he is supposed to be, whose artificial smile has replaced his genuine laughter, whose meaningless chatter, has replaced communication speech, whose dulled despair has taken the place of genuine pain”.15In his next book Beyond the Chains of Illusion, Fromm explains that man?s estrangement from himself is a real cause of his alienation. The growing gap of communication and reluctance of man to share his joys and sorrows to others alienates him from the world around.Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a Swiss psychiatrist establishes a new psycho analytic school of psychology and named it, „Analytical Psychology?. He develops a distinctive approach to the study of human psyche. The ultimate goal of his works is the reconciliation of the life of individual with the world of supra personal. He analyses the individual?s encounter with the world around where shocking consequences of present life, alienates him from his being.