This essay will explain childhood as a social construction it will present a clear understanding of what social construction means in childhood and the other aspects that are involved with social construction.Social construction as a theoretical perspective means how to look at our lives and reality and try to see what is truly real and what is only real because we say it’s real but in actual fact many things in your life that you experience exist because we create them, but if we lived in a different society or different area these things may never have existed. Is social constructionism actually real since it is dependent on people giving it existence is it just fake real or just an allusion? This is different to things that don’t need to be expected as real they just are nobody had any part in creating them.Social constructionism is trying to figure out what is actually real for example things that are socially constructed are money we use money all the time the reason why this is a socially constructed item is because money has different value because we give it value but in reality it’s only paper and metal the only reason why we can buy goods with it is because we have accepted that this piece of paper or this piece of metal is worth more money, language is socially constructed it only exists because we teach it over and over again we except that english is english and spanish is spanish this is how we communicate humans have created this without humans this doesn’t exist, Books would also never be created without us we give meaning to them. the concept of the self social construct are identity has been constructed by the people we socialise and interact with and are reactions to the expectations to sociality There are two threads of social constructionism the weak and the strong, weak social constructionism proposes that social construct is depend on brute facts which are the basic and fundamental and dont real on any other facts brute facts are so hard to understand because it’s so strange to think of something that can’t be explained by something else brute facts are different to institucional facts which are created by social conventions and do reply on other facts for example money again as we have given paper value. Strong social constructionism states that the hole of reality depends on language and social habits and that all knowledge is a socially constructed and that there is no brute facts and that no facts just exist, the main criticisms to social constructivism is that is doesn’t consider the effect of natural phenomena on society and at least for strong social constructionism it has difficulty explaining this phenomena because they don’t depend on human speech or action strong social constructionism only explains reality through the thoughts of humans not by using fundamental brute facts.Discourse development in childhood taking responsibility for how people will understand what you say and for making sure that you understand them is an aspect of discourse that develops with age. Young children are not very good at taking other discourse participants into account and shaping what they say to fit the needs of others. Learners of a foreign language will increase their range or repertoire of discourse skills and types. They will learn to interact conversationally situations, with different goals and on different topics. Children develop skills to produce different types of talk and increasingly long stretches of talk, some of these are descriptive, narrative and options. Effective support for children with foreign language discourse skills the support that should be provided is supporting children through motivating topics, supporting them through tasks structure and supporting them through language practice. From reading the article Alan Prout believes that children hood has been turned into a science experiment he believed that this was for the protection of children and to keep them safe from danger and harm and that the resources were for children and their wellbeing. Children were being used as an object and explicated to understand every aspect of a child.There are two problematic images of childhood these are children who are in danger and children who are a danger. Parents know more about the danger that children face they are more aware of public places and where their children are at all times especially when they are in publics spaces as the parent hear more and more about the danger of the public and the dangers their children could be in, this makes the Parent overprotective which leads to their children becoming unknown of what’s going on in the world and not learning any street smarts as the children grow up they become more vulnerable as adults because they have been sheltered from the world and protected from everything there is a positive side of this as the child will not grow up with problems of neglect or get into trouble but I will affect how they develop socially as they will not be allowed to play out or go places with other people as they might be in trouble. Children who are a danger can be dangerous to them self and to others this could result from such things like how they have been brought up and treated like if they were neglected is could lead to them being socially engaged and could then them to become depressed or anxious around people and lean them to them possibly being suicidal or harming them self and could make them harm others as they could become jalousie and envious of them having a good stable relationship with their familiars and other people around them and may to abuse or control to the person who has it all. There is a lot of historical difference when looking at childhood such as Children didn’t really have a childhood in the middle ages they were classed as mini-adults, children, and adults livered together as equals and the expectations of children were much higher than it is now. Children are seen the be more fragile than they were in the middle ages where they would go out work and earn money. With higher death rates in the middle ages people didn’t really understand what children were for and were seen as a source of income they didn’t show children as much love and care as people do now they didn’t really keep track of their children because so many children died,Philippe Aries believe that ‘in medieval society the idea of childhood did not exist’ (Aries 1960: 125). Both Aries and Shorter were criticised over their research. Pollock (1983) argues that childhood did exist, it was just different than our concept of it today.Reasons for the changes in the position of childhood people started to recognize children as children and not something that they can make money from people start to understand stand that children are not mini adults aries believed that the twentieth century was the year of the child and that we started to think of children differently and not as a commodity but as a central part of the family children we to be adored, cared for and looked after other things started changing in the nineteenth and twentieth century laws about child labour and excluding children from being able to do paid work, children stopped being away of earning wages. Compulsory schooling is another act that came into play in 1880 where all children had to go to school especially if you was a poor child because middle and upper-class parent were already sending their children to school. The child protection and welfare legislation for example 1889 prevention of cruelty to children act were put in place to protect children and so that is why social services were set up to protect children from danger and harmed.The size in which families have changed is a lot as people would have babies in the past because they feared that they would not survive past the age of two so the more children they would have would mean that some may die but others will survive people wanted to have children because they were a financial commodity but in recent years the family size has dropped and infant mortality has changed as there are medication and other ways of helping babies to survive and people started to place emotional investment in to the children as the fewer you have the more you want to take care of them, health has improved a lot over time obviously not just for children but for everyone, children’s health and education of health so knowing how to look after yourself take care of yourself and knowing about what foods you should eat. Discourse is the process of communication putting words and sentences to together to clearly communicate ideas there are different techniques that go into discourse some of these are structure and organization, intelligence, audience and manner of which you speak in. there are different types of discourse there is common discourse which is small talk like if you were to talk to somebody about the weather this is common discourse has a wider range of rules you can have common discourse with just about anyone formal discourse on the other other hand has more surrounding rules such as if you were to talk business matters at work this communication has more special and structured business words like profit and mass marketing the are rules, for example, you should never speak to your boss/ manager the same way you would with a friend. Academic discourse is the style of communication used in the academic world such as when engaged in academic discussions for example when doing presentations, lectures, textbooks and research articles if you have had experience in any of these you can see how the discourse is different. To conclude the essay shows what social construction as a theoretical perspective is and how we tell real and what is only real in are heads apart this essay help people to understand what social construction is and how we use it for instants how we value money and how we brought different languages into the world, from reading this essay you can see that nature and nurture was added into the essay this show people how they see children and not all children are vulnerable and need to be protect and shows a different point of view of nature and nurture, there is also parts about the history of childhood in the middle ages and how children were not cared for in the proper manny and that children ever had a proper place for them to call home as they did not get shown much love this essay shows how the difference of childhood has changed over the years and how the laws have changed to help childhood from being used for money and how children had to go to compulsory schooling also included in this essay is how family size has changed over years and how health has made people more aware of what they need to eat and to have a longer life, infant mortality shows how medication and childcare has changed over the years and parent are more affectionate as children are living longer. The last paragraph is about Discourse it shows the different types of discourse and how discourse would be used in different environments such as if you was in work, school/university or when your just with friends discourse is finding the right way of saying something.