This a cross-sectional survey is that it is economical

This study aimed to understand whether workers’ perceptions of
spiritual leadership positively influence workplace spirituality resulting in
happiness of employees and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The study
focused on the relationships, or effects, between variables rather than an
understanding what each variable means to workers in organizational settings. A
quantitative research design suited the research purpose better, as one of the
study’s purposes was to identify, without subjectivity, factors affecting happiness
of employees, OCB and spiritual behaviors in the organization. There are three
additional reasons why this current study used a quantitative design. First,
because the topic spiritual leadership has not been widely studied by quantitative
methods in Indian organizations. Second, previous theoretical studies have
emphasized the need for more empirical work to inform future studies of
spiritual leadership and workplace spirituality (Afsar et al., 2016; Fry et al., 2016; Houghton et
al., 2016). Finally, as seen in
the literature review, most previous research on the dependent variables
(happiness of employees and OCB) has been based on a quantitative research
design. Adopting such a design will help to extend the knowledge on a
happiness, and OCB.

To develop an understanding of the
relationship between spiritual leadership, workplace spirituality, personal and
organizational behaviors, this empirical study employed a cross – sectional
research design using data collected from an organizational setting with an
online survey and paper survey. Cross-sectional survey research design has been used to study
happiness of employees and OCB in the past. In this design, samples are
selected from a population and information is collected from subjects on all variables
at one point in time. Then those variables are compared. Cross-sectional survey
design has several advantages. One obvious advantage of a cross-sectional
survey is that it is economical in time and cost (Schutt, 2001). As a result of
the cross-sectional data collection, the participants feel more comfortable
about engaging in the study.

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Surveys are the most common data
collection method for unobservable phenomena and are used to generalize from a
sample to a population of interest (Dooley, 1995). An online survey method was
selected because of its speed, ease of use, and high response rate (Griffis,
Goldsby & Cooper, 2003).The study relied on self-administered data. One advantage of the
self-administered survey is that the participant may feel more comfortable in
this situation about responding to question on personal matters, such as
individual spirituality (Rubin & Babbie, 2005). Another advantage is that
survey research renders the study possible with a large sample (Rubin &
Babbie, 2005). This large sample allows analysis of several variables at the same
time to examine the relationship in spite of the lack of causality (Rubin &
Babbie, 2005).

            First, the researcher obtained
approval for this study proposal from the Doctoral committee and panel members of
Anna University. The researcher asked HR professionals who worked for companies
in the research sample to send the paper survey questionnaire to a list of
potential participants from an array of staff levels in their organization. An
online survey ( was used to another section of sample who were
not accessible in person. An informed consent and permission letter that
described the purpose of the study and the significance of the responses were
provided in every survey questionnaire. The names of the respondents and their
respective organizations were not requested in order to protect their
anonymity. The data collected through electronic services were housed within
secure systems, with access to the data limited to researchers alone. The data
files does not contain information that could link a particular response to the

            The study focused majorly on primary
data sources to complement the research methods. Hence, the data collected from
the survey instruments contributed to advancing the objectives of the study.