Theoretical conflict between study and work. Furthermore, working while





researchers were able identify main perspectives which formulate contrasting theoretical
arguments about the impacts of being a working student to the senior high
learners towards their school performance. The ‘zero-sum’ states that working
while studying affects the student’s time management: as the working schedule
increases, the students’ time towards their school performance decreases. Thus,
according to this theory there is a strong conflict between study and work. Furthermore,
working while studying can reduce the student’s opportunity to join the school activities.
The small time of a student spent towards their academic performance and
connecting with their peers may affect the completion of the identification of
a ‘student role’ and this could lead to the student’s change of priorities,
making a working student role prioritize than the student’s motivation to the
academic success. (Tinto 1975; Marsh 1991; Braxton and Hirschy 2004). In many
situations students may have an overloading commitment towards their work,
increasing physical and psychological stress and anxiety related to the fear of
failure (Robotham 2008). So, the zero-sum approach suggest that working
students will have a slower academic performance compared to non working

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Super’s Theory of Career Development , Super proposed that preferences change
with time and experience. He developed a concept about the vocational maturity,
in which people have developmental stages. In the growth stage, people have a
general understanding about the need to work. In the exploratory stage, people
try a variety of work choices through classes, work experiences, and hobbies. This
stage is more likely related to the working students’ experience as they
collect information about careers, understanding the skill sets and different
qualifications for a specific job, and develop an interest to career. In the
establishment stage, people acquire the entry-level skills for their chosen job
and focus on improving the existing knowledge. Super also identified six
factors with the exploratory stage that helps the students select a suitable
job and advance to the establishment stage. He argued that decision-making
skills, long term planning skills, knowledge and use of information resources,
general information about the culture, rules, and the etiquette of working;
detailed information about occupation were essential for students in the
exploratory stage to master. Thus, in this theory Donald Super proposed that a
student works because the students understand the need to work to have