The their own cognitive architectures and the fundamental complexities

The bounded rationality model is a concept that focuses on the idea that while individuals are certainly goal oriented in achieving their wants, there is still a tendency to deviate from said goals. Particularly as a result of one’s interaction with their own cognitive architectures and the fundamental complexities of the environment one is exposed to. It becomes difficult to distinguish from logical and or illogical behavior. The  current social norms and roles  that set the guidelines  for ones expected behavior play a major part  in public policy, and as such, public administration. Not everyone follows the norms deviance is expected, challenging the social order of things isn’t the issue. Norms are merely ,guidelines for expected behaviors. They are the “should dos”, the “must dos”  and the ” don’t dos” of society. The issue arises when people deviate from the norms which are also upheld by the law and or makeup the current socioeconomic state of affairs, for  society is now faced with repairing their sense of social order. Social change occurs through many avenues, oftentimes through technological innovations and social movements. But in each of those avenues, civil society must be maintained all while public administrators perform a wide range of functions, including managing city budgets, developing policy and legislation, implementing policies, and analyzing data to determine public needs.Throughout most of the nineteenth century, U.S. manufacturers paid little heed to worker safety, especially to institutions  in which women, young and old, were the predominant work force employed. Working conditions in factories,  factors including,  the number of hours on the job, required output for workers , safety in the workplace, and compensation paid to workers and their families for injuries and fatalities suffered in the workplace were nil if not non  existent. It was bad for men, but it was worse for women, who did not have a voice in the political sphere. It was not the norm for women to hold a job nor was it the norm for men to be expected to be fairly compensated in the workforce, it was ultimately cheaper to lose an employee as a result of injury and hire another employee than to offer compensation. It is safe to say that factory conditions in the United states were appalling,  further fueled by the American system of Manufactures. A system which now  created a method of mass  producing goods at lower the cost.  Businesses would now only need  semi-skilled employees to operate their  poorly maintained machines. These businesses were subjected to minimal government regulation, and most courts denied worker injury claims if employers could demonstrate any degree of employee negligence. There wasn’t a Government performance and results act to keep these businesses in place, this wouldn’t come until much later. Both public and private sector were completely profit driven. There was no accountability within these networks, public-private partnerships. Federal goals were oftentimes diverted, and opportunistic behavior within these business were not uncommon. While massachusetts was the first state to Pass a law limiting the number of hours that women and children could work in 1874, and an inspection system in 1877  under the Massachusetts Factory act. It wasn’t until the latter part of the century that movement to improve working conditions gained traction, after a few tragic incidents. For at the end of the 18th century between 1870 and 1900’s  the United States had the highest worker fatality rate in the industrialized world. It was by no means rational, but it was a means to attain a profit and that’s all that seemed to matter.   According to The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) and an article published on,  The Factory Inspector, a journal with publishing distributions between 1902 through 1907, “published reports of workplace accidents based on data gathered by state labor bureaus, and Chicago journalist William B. Hard wrote a 1907 article titled “Making Steel and Killing Men” in which he estimated that 1,200 men were killed or injured per year at U.S. Steel’s Chicago-based South Works plant. The “Pittsburgh Survey,” a comprehensive sociological study conducted between 1907 and 1908, revealed that over a three-month period in 1907 more than 509 people were injured in industrial accidents.” What finally seemed to help kick start a major reform movement  in New York City resulted from a fire that killed 146 workers at the Triangle Waist Company on March 25, 1911. The factory,  owned by “Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, was located in the top three floors of the Asch Building, on the corner of Greene Street and Washington Place, in Manhattan”.  The factory was a sweatshop which employed primarily young immigrant women. These women worked in small cramped spaces  at lines of sewing machines. The women were all nearly underage girls who spoke minimal english, working 12 hours a day, every day. “In 1911, there were four elevators with access to the factory floors, but only one was fully operational and the workers had to file down a long, narrow corridor in order to reach it. There were two stairways down to the street, but one was locked from the outside to prevent stealing and the other only opened inward. The fire escape was so narrow that it would have taken hours for all the workers to use it, even in the best of circumstances.” – AFL-CIO. Under such conditions it is no wonder that these women had been attempting to bring forth change to their working environment, as such,  they attempted to unionize, hoping for better wages and safe working conditions. In turn, The factory’s management in fear of losing a profit, responded by locking the workers into the building, thinking it would show how futile their actions were. The results were disastrous, “Fabric scraps, oil and hot machines crammed into rooms on the upper floors of the ten-story building quickly unleashed an inferno within the building. With the exits blocked, girls attempted to use the rusted fire escape or jump from windows into the fire department’s dry-rotted nets, only to plunge onto the pavement in front of bystanders below.” -AFL-CIO.   The tragedy became a representation of the failure of the united states government to protect its working class, it became difficult to deny the need for labor reforms. The deaths of these women paved the way for the unification  of male and female labor reformers of the Progressive era.Following the tragedy,  the state legislature established  the New York Factory Investigating Commission. Under this new policy, roughly “3,500 workplaces throughout the state over a two-year period” -AFL-CIO were inspected.  New yorks health and safety codes were now in the process of being completely reconditioned.  By 1920,  “New York passed the country’s first workers’ compensation law; 44 other states had followed suit” – AFL- CIO.