relationship between intelligence and creativity has been a subject of research
for long. In spite of which there is no
certainty to how the two are related to one another. Intelligence and
creativity can be considered as a subset of one another other, or they may
function as coincident sets, they can be independent but overlapping sets, it
is entirely possible that it can be a disjoint set (Jauk, E., Benedek, M.,
Dunst, B., & Neubauer, A. C. 2013). Several models have been put forward by
researchers to identify the relation.
is a massive idea under which various concepts are measured to classify one as
intelligent. Over the years many definitions were given to the idea, although
most commonly we understand intelligence as the general mental capability of an
individual. Gottfredson’s in 1997
associated intelligence to the ability of reasoning, planning, solving problems
and learning promptly. As stated by Gottfredson intelligence is far more than
just academic skills. It’s a rather more extensive, deeper proficiency for
comprehending our surrounding (Warne, R. T. 2016). On these grounds,
intelligence is not mere test-taking smarts but rather the ability to learn
from experience, cope with everyday life and adjust to the environment.
Although this definition is quite sufficient, it is not elaborate enough for
scientific use (Warne, R. T. 2016). One of the most extensively used models is
the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) model (McGrew, 2009). This model resolved prior
conflicts which emerged from the views of previous researchers (Phelps, L.,
McGrew, K. S., Knopik, S. N., & Ford, L. 2005). This concept is principally
divided into three broad strata. This theory was the first to claim that there
is a significant difference between fluid intelligence (Gf) and crystallized
intelligence (Gc). Where both Gf and Gc are aspects of g (general intelligence)
which was a concept put forward by Charles Spearman (Kan, K. J., Kievit, R. A.,
Dolan, C., & van der Maas, H. 2011; McGrew, 2009). This theory also looks
at the quantitative knowledge, reading and writing skills, visual and auditory
knowledge, etc., hence supporting the other intelligence theories put forward
by Spearman, Gardner and those such as Guilford and Thurstone (Warne, R. T. 2016). The CHC theory is one of
the most widely accepted theories. Furthermore, it accommodates the various
approaches to intelligence.
the other hand, the word creativity may seem somewhat trivial, but it is quite
significant in the field of psychology. Most scholars usually determine
creativity as the ability of the human mind to produce new concepts and ideas
(Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. 2010). One can also interpret
creativity as the use of one’s imagination and ideas to create something, where
a person uses mental states and structures, state of affairs, events and
actions (Wreen, M. 2015). However the concept of creativity is often restricted
to generation of new concepts while, it is essential that these ideas are
realistic and makes a significant and productive change to improve living
(Karwowski, M., Dul, J., Gralewski, J., Jauk, E., Jankowska, D. M., Gajda, A.,
… & Benedek, M. 2016). . Creativity is also is the ability to come up
with multiple ideas at a given point in time while they are unique and
original. Based on this, a test that measures flexibility, fluency and
originality was devised to measure creativity. The Torrance Tests of Creative
Thinking is most extensively used to compute creativity (Hokanson, B. 2007).
Creativity is considered as one of the sources of evolution. This means that
creativity is, developing unique ideas which are profitable and effective for
the future (Runco, M. A. 2004).Furthermore, creative thinking focuses more on
the product, and it’s an act which has originality which depends on sense,
specialized training, education and abilities (Nair, D. R. 2014). A creative
thought must be effective as effectiveness takes the form of a value in
creativity (Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. 2012; Wreen, M. 2015). Creativity
is something which is uncommon or exclusive which hasn’t been deduced by others
ordinarily. Originality is one of the more critical aspects of creativity.
and creativity were believed to be unrelated aspects, but over the years,
several kinds of research conducted uncovered a possible relation between the
two concepts. Past analyses have been performed based on the presumption that
creativity and intelligence both, represent dimensions of intellect (Boersma,
F. J., & O’Bryan, K.1968). Initially, it was put forth that, intelligence
and creativity are both linked to proficiency and is not correlated to each
other in any manner (Silvia, P. J. 2008).Some researchers suggest that the
association between the two ideas is random and unpredictable. Some researchers
believed that it’s exhausting to find a pattern to link these concepts to one
another (Furnham, A., Zhang, J., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. 2005;2006). The
lack of a unified definition of creativity is a predicament that stands in the
way of researchers (Squalli, J., & Wilson, K. 2014). A significant number
of researchers speculate that there is no relationship between the two ideas.
Some believe that the link is inconsistent and disorganized.
studies have shown that intelligence is a necessity for creativity because
individuals who are creative generate a set of ideas and, introspect and
distinguish between their better and worse ideas with the help of their
intelligence ( Sternberg, R. J.2001). The threshold theory is most redundantly
used to elucidate the relationship between creativity and intelligence. This
theory states that one is to be reasonably intelligent to be creative (Preckel,
F., Holling, H., & Wiese, M. 2006). It has been put forth that intelligence
and creativity are related to a specific threshold value. This value is
estimated to be an intelligence quotient of 120. Subsequently, it is likely to
differ as independent constructs (Jung,
R. E., Gasparovic, C., Chavez, R. S., Flores, R. A., Smith, S. M., Caprihan,
A., & Yeo, R. A. 2009). The studies relating to threshold hypothesis focus
mainly on the relationship between intelligence and creative potential.
However, it failed to focus on the relationship between intelligence and
creative achievement. It is also unclear why the threshold theory had concluded
that the threshold is 120 IQ points and not a few more or less (Jauk, E., et
study conducted by K.H. Kim considerably depicts the above-mentioned theory. In
addition, he suggests another numerical denomination for the relationship.
Despite this fact, this relation is believed to be underestimated. On the
contrary, certain researchers have failed to speculate the higher order latent
g factor and have overestimated the relation between creativity and
intelligence (Silvia, P. J. 2008).
has been revealed that creativity holds synthetic, practical and analytical
elements of intelligence. The synthetic element is responsible for constructing
or developing new ideas. The analytical aspect, on the other hand, is to
critically assess the idea. While the practical aspect is to devise a
compelling way to communicate the ideas ( Horan, R. 2007).
some researchers try to associate intelligence with creativity using a third
variable. DeYoung, C. G., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2005)
correlated exposure to multiple encounters to intelligence. Similarly,
creativity is also correlated likewise (Furnham, A., et al. 2005;2006).
late, studies have focused on finding a more consistent relation between the
two concepts. Yet there is a lack of concordance.
the fact that intelligence and creativity have been a significant and classic
problem for researchers to examine over the past years, an invariably accepted
solution has been put forward by some scholars. Intelligence is a requisite but
not an adequate condition for creativity (Karwowski, M., et al. 2016).
In conclusion, the relation between intelligence
and creativity is much hassled upon.
Multiple types of research failed to correlate intelligence to
creativity due to the lack of statistical data, unified definitions, etc. Also,
the inconsistency in coming to a harmony cannot be dismissed. Nonetheless,
there is a possibility that increased intelligence can lead to higher levels of
creativity. Adding to that, some researchers claim that creativity is only seen
in individuals with a particular magnitude of intelligence. This implies that,
as the measure of creativity increases, it is most likely to have a
significantly higher influence of intelligence on it