The blunder as an archaeological illustration. Arguably, lighting is

The XX century gave a tremendous boost not just to archeological illustrations, but to archaeology itself, which meant that fresh ideas were implemented. The new concept of illustrations, with the precise cognizance of the idea of the illustration, is not just about representing to information, but also taking into account the ways of its portrayal. The job of the illustrator is to be broad and opened in the approach to illustration: the people are the one who directs the style of drawing. What that means is, that the more economical and provocative the drawing is, this mirrors the audience’s wants. In pursuit of the requirements of the public, the illustrator has to transfer the most of information he can, as precisely and scrupulously as possible, using the ubiquitous practices if such are possible to implement and are relevant. If the design of the illustration along with the format and the use of symbols including shades, so that it not only portrays the information but aesthetically attractive, this will be the impressive addition: as the aesthetically satisfying illustration, that failed to meet the vital needs will blunder as an archaeological illustration. Arguably, lighting is considered the most important component in archaeological illustration. Even if the room for drawing is illuminated well, purchasing a professional lamp, which is made for the utilization with a board for painting, is a good idea, however, a normal adjustable table lamp that will make the drawing is lighter. Nevertheless, buying the appropriate light equipment is important, not only you can save lots of time, but also, using appropriate lamp could help you to avoid making mistakes, which are usually caused by bad lighting. The key point about drawing relics is to put the lamplight from the top left corner (Fig. 1,1a). Moreover, it is vital to use right shades. Patterns of shading vary a lot, however, the simpler, the shading is, the better (Fig. 2). The most used techniques are the use of dotes (Fig.3), using a diagonal line, called hatching (Fig. 4) and using the lines, which cross together, to form a lattice pattern (Fig.5). Nonetheless, shading is mainly utilized to highlight rounded surfaces and remodeling. When it is usually. employed, the source of light should be coming from the top left of the illustration to ensure that all projections are depicted by shading around the lower right, and yet depressions are highlighted with shading towards the top left. Pretty much every material carries the distinct drawing and also shading methods. As a result, for you to deliver the suitable illustration it is crucial to assess the material of the artifact. Bones are typically drawn with shaded views or simply unshaded outline drawings. Provided the drawing of bone artifacts are shaded, after that stippled (Fig. 6), or as a mixture of stipples with lines. (Fig. 7) In case, the metal object needs to undertake the preservation procedure, it needs to be drawn before it, as a mean of safety. All the iron sketches have to be done using x-rays, if possible, and there are four distinct ways to draw the objects. Shaded parts of the object with all the rust and corrosion, could be drawn and sections blacked in (Fig 8), nonetheless, from time to time, the density of the outer corrosion remains not shaded in the particular parts of the drawing.In archaeological illustration there are general drawing requirements : 1) accuracy 2) clarity 3) informative content 4) sameness (the same layout of objects on the sheet and the technique of drawing). The result of meeting these requirements is convenient reading of images and the possibility to get the most complete information about each illustrated object. 

This coursework is based on the ‘Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society, Vol. 23, No. 3’ (1995) from page 329-335 that is published by County Louth Archaeological and History Society. The excavation was conducted by the team of the Irish Underwater  Archaeological Research Team (I.U.A.R.T). The underwater excavation took place in October in 1992, the aim of it was to collect the information about the archeological relics. Divers decided to use metal-detectors and to employ visual approach. In the Journal there are just five figures with illustrated finds there. The first figure (Fig. 9) depicts composite objects: metal and bone. Human and animal bones are not commonly drawn if there is no testimony for artefact manufacture. The drawn bone has quite grainy texture, thus there was no great manufacture applied to it, as it rough parts can be easily identified on the illustrated bone. This detailed drawing of the surface of the bone and metal can be used to identify the grain or its natural characteristics and human modification of it due to the human activity. Furthermore, the illustration shows thickness of both parts of the item, thus with no description the length and thickness of it can be easily recognised due to the scale under the drawing. This illustration  gives the full picture of materials of objects, as the metal part of the object is drawn using stipples (Fig. 10)  that are thicker due to the change of the shape of the metal, which is relatively smooth in comparison to the bone, that has harsher texture with quite big wholes in it. The bone is drawn with dots and horizontal lines, that gives the sense of length of the bone. The composite metal and bone is most likely modern. The illustration gives the idea that this item was possibly used and made  by a farmer then discarded. Whereas, these composite objects do not have any archaeological significance, therefore  the illustration of it does not present the data of the excavation due to its archaeological unimportance. There is another archaeological illustration of the iron knife blade and handle (Fig 11). The knife was found In a poor condition as it is corroded. The knife is drawn in a dotted technique, highlighting corroded parts with a thicker stipples , thus there is a full insight of the texture of the object. This means that illustration provides enough information to recognise the material, its texture and condition of it. Notwithstanding that the illustration is well drawn, there are evident visual drawbacks such as: no identification of the blade on the drawing, therefore without any description in the report it is complicated to recognise the blade, that is also depicted on the illustration.  Another mistake on that illustration is that there is no scale that would help to understand the size of objects, thus the viewer will not be able to get the full picture about the iron knife. As the report says the iron peg was possibly a part of the canal between 1748 and 1800, therefore for archaeologists it has no significance. The last three objects are cannon balls (Fig 12,13,14) that were used from around blacked in corroded parts. There is a scale under the (Fig 12) and (Fig 13) that equals 10cm, but this scale is useless for these drawings as it is located right in the middle between drawings (Fig 15), thus the viewer cannot use this scale to get the right size of objects. Whereas, drawings shows thickness of these cannons. This means that these drawings can be easily used by other archaeologists to analyse these objects due to its detailed illustration of texture and shape. These cannons are depicted in a stipple technique and using outline lines in order to highlight shapes. However, the lighting is totally wrong as there are shadows that usually are drawn when there is a light from the top left. Figure 14 is the most inaccurate with overly thickened outlines, that  creates quite distorted view. Nevertheless, these cannons are important objects valued by archaeologists as they are associate with the Battle of the Boyne that took place in July in 1690 from 8am and 12 noon. These illustrations helps to demonstrate the way these cannot were used and how the corrosion destroyed some parts of it. This means that illustration provides the information that can be more detailed than the photograph taken of the object, as texture ,might not be fully seen, due to the camera flash light and flatness tat can be created by the camera.

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It should be emphasised that any publication should be accompanied by both drawings and photos of relics . The photograph gives an idea of ??the real preservation of the subject, and is also devoid of a subjectivity that exists in the archaeological illustration. While the archaeological drawing allows to make smoother the traces of corrosion and do not show small ruts, but on the other hand brighten the lines, intend to be more visible to the viewer and give a complete reconstruction of the object, based on its true size. The figurative method has a fundamental importance for archaeological research, since the graphic manner of the material innings strongly affects not only on its direct perception, but also its accessibility.