Skin many different ways; it can be described on

Skin is the biggest and one of the most important
organs of our body. It serves as an organ of regulation and protection. It is
prone to injuries as it remains exposed to the outer environment at all times.
Dermal injuries remain one of the most prevalent and economically burdensome
health care issues in the world. Millions of people are affected and billions
of dollars are being spent on dermal injuries every year. Treatment options
currently available are costly, limited and inefficient. It is necessary to
develop new therapeutics in order to satisfy the clinical needs. A lot has been
done in this regard but still a lot more needs to be done. 1

Wound is a type of injury in which the skin is cut,
torn or punctured. It’s the type of injury in which dermis of skin is affected;
continuity of the epithelium is lost. A wound can be described in many
different ways; it can be described on the basis of its anatomical location,
the time it takes to heal, by appearance of the tissue in wound bed.

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There are different types of wounds such as
penetrating wounds, non penetrating wounds, thermal, wounds, chemical wounds,
electrical wounds, bites and stings. Penetrating wounds are the one which
penetrate deep in to the skin affecting the tissues, internal organs and
sometimes bone as well. It
includes skin cuts, stab wounds, surgical wounds or gunshot wounds. Non
penetrating wounds do not penetrate in to the skin and they are resulted from
friction with other surfaces or by blunt trauma. They include lacerations,
abrasions, contusions and concussions. Wounds can be classified as closed and
open wounds. In closed wounds the skin remains intact and the underlying tissue
is not exposed to the outer environment, while in open wounds the skin is
broken and the tissue is exposed to the external environment which makes it
vulnerable to infection and bleeding.

On the basis of time taken in healing, wounds are
classified as acute and chronic wounds. Acute wounds are the ones which heal
within expected timeframe i.e. four weeks, they normally progress through all
stages of wound healing and chronic wounds are the one which don not heal
within the expected timeframe. All the wounds are acute at the beginning but
they become chronic when they do not heal within four weeks and do not show any
signs of improvements for eight weeks. Acute wounds progress through all the
stages of wound healing normally but chronic wounds get stuck in one of the stages
and do not show any signs of healing, e.g. diabetic foot ulcer, pressure ulcer,
burn wounds etc.

Almost everyone is
going to get different types of wounds at some stage of life while doing daily life
activities. Minor wounds simply damage the skin cells as a result they lose
their function and need some time and simple treatment to heal. Most common
wounds that people sustain in their lives are superficial and they are limited
to outer skin layers. On the other hand some wounds are deeper and they reach
the underlying tissues and organs. Depending on their site, cause and depth
wounds can be simple ones or life threatening.

Wound healing is complex and multi cellular
process and different cells are involved in wound healing such as fibroblasts,
keratinocytes, endothelial cells, platelets and macrophages. Wound healing takes
place because of the coordinated efforts of these cell types. It a continuous
process but still it is divided in to four steps. Haemostasis starts right
after the injury and in this step platelets form a clot at the wound site in
order to stop the bleeding. This process takes place within three hours post
injury. The main objective of this step is to stop bleeding. During
inflammatory phase, leukocytes and macrophages aggregate at the wound site and leukocytes
kill the bacteria and other harmful microorganisms present at the wound site,
in this way they prevent wound infection, on the other hand macrophages cleanse
the wound by engulfing and destroying cellular debris present at the wound
site. This process takes place with 3 days post injury. During proliferation
new blood vessels are formed in a process called angiogenesis and fibroblast,
neutrophils and blood vessels make up the granulation tissue which fills the
wound cavity. This process takes place from 3-21 days after injury. In the
final maturation phase of the wound healing collagen fibers reorganize and as a
result tensile strength of the wound is increased. This process takes place
between 21 days to 1.5 years post injury.