Remarkably, than their male counterparts in all sporting positions.

Remarkably, gender inequality is observed in the ABME
group, regarding participation in football and other sports. Female members of
this group are considerably more under-represented than their male counterparts
in all sporting positions. The inequality is especially pronounced in the
coaching positions, whereby very few women in the ABME feature. Women are also
more under-represented in the national governing bodies in the UK that handle
sporting affairs (Norman et al., 2014). The most popular sports for this group,
as reported by the Sporting Equals are a gym, keep fit, football, athletics,
and swimming. It is, however, in football that the greatest impact of
under-representation is felt for the sport is heavily dependent on coaching.
Currently, only 8 % of the minority group members engage in football in the UK,
with men featuring more compared to women (Norman et al., 2014). Similar trends
are noted in the school sports, whereby approximately 42 percent of the Black
Minority boys engage in sport compared to 30 percent of girls in the same
ethnic group (Dashper et al., 2017). Considering the gender inequality that
disadvantage the women, policy interventions should strive to promote the
participation of the ABME group, with particular attention being devoted to

Despite the consensus on the low participation of the
ABME group in sport, the Active People Surveys (APS) documents higher
participation rates of this group depending on certain measures like age.
Research shows that age is a critical factor for participating in sport. In
this case, the African Black Minority Ethnic Group is composed of younger
players compared to those in the White populations (Dashper et al., 2017). This
is the argument used in support of higher participation of this group in
football and other sports, compared to the Whites. However, this analysis is
deficient, and by applying a uniform age measure as that adopted in the Sports
Equity Index, the true representation of Whites British in sport is found to be
much higher than that of the minority group (Dashper et al., 2017).

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The Sports Equity Index report indicates that the
average participation rates in football by the ABME group are lower in all
regions of England compared to those of their White British counterparts. This
finding is further backed by the survey conducted by UK Sport which shows that
only 10.3% of the elite sportsmen and women that it funds belong to the African
Black Minority communities (Norman et al., 2014). Currently, a majority of the
individuals within the ABME group prefer to participate in physical activities
rather than engaging in an organised sport like football. This trend can be
heavily attributed to the rising cases of racism in the elite sport in many
parts of the UK (Norman et al., 2014). A review undertaken by the Sporting
Equals revealed that the participation level was considerably lower among this
group, with many Blacks reporting of playing once or less every month. This
trend is noted in the school sporting activities as well. For example, an
analysis by Sports Wales concludes that young students within the ABME group
are less likely to engage in sport for more than three times every week when
outside school compared to the White students (Dashper et al., 2017). Arguably,
the group is disadvantaged in many ways making them unable to participate in
elite sport actively.

As noted earlier, the participation levels
of the ABME group in sport, and football, in particular, is very low in the
United Kingdom. The UK Government has formulated various policies and
strategies in an attempt to increase participant diversity within the various
sports organisations in the country. However,
sharp inequality continues to manifest itself in the sports representation of
the ABME group. According to recent statistics released by the Sports England,
representation of the ABME group in various sporting activities is at best average,
currently standing at 15 percent. The number of those engaging in sports
facilitation from this group is even lower. At the moment, only 3% of the
individual coaches in the United Kingdom belong to this group, and out of all
the qualified coaches in the country, only 1% is from the ABME group (Norman et
al., 2014). These statistics expose lower participation levels of the Black
minority people in active sport.

Overview of Current Participation Profile of ABME Group in Sport


The latest survey conducted by Sports England shows
that the group representation in sport is low (i.e., only 15 %), with less than
3% of the ABME engaging in coaching roles (Norman et al., 2014). The low
representation in sports is attributable to numerous barriers that face this
group; namely, perceived personal barriers, cultural barriers, socioeconomic
barriers, and environmental barriers (Koshoedo et al., 2009). Nevertheless,
there is a positive trend in the recent times, and several strategies have
helped to increase the participation of this group in the sport. The main positive
initiatives are the adoption of racial equality policies that promote sports
diversity, and active training of this group to help them perform sport
facilitation roles (Long et al., 2009). This paper
discusses the current sports participation profile of the ABME group, the
barriers to participation, and analyses two successful initiatives that promote
the level of participation of the group in sports.

Recent research from ( findings show that the participation levels of the
African Black Minority Ethnic (ABME) Group in sport is very low compared to that
of the Whites British. Reduced participation in physical activity makes
individuals in this group be at a higher risk of being affected by
non-communicable diseases such as stroke, cardiovascular disease, depression,
diabetes, and cancer (Koshoedo et al., 2015). Normally, the ABME group is
diverse and complex due to inherent variations in culture, migration history,
language, disease profiles, and religion. This group is considered to be a
minority, in the sense that, it is under-represented relative to the total
population within a given society (Koshoedo et al., 2009). For example, only 14
% of the total population of England and Wales is considered to belong to this