Red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common cell in the blood and its function is to carry oxygen around the body. They absorb oxygen in lungs and pass through narrow blood vessels to release oxygen to respiring cells.Blood transfusion is a life saving method however, there are risks that include infectious and noninfectious complications. Red blood cell transfusions are used in order to treat hemorrhage and to better the oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells is based depending on the persons clinical condition. Transfusion is needed when a patients is suffering from symptomatic anemia which causes shortness of breath, congestive heart failure,dizziness, and decreased exercise tolerance acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. PlateletThe platelets function is to ensure the blood clots in order to prevent bleeding to death. Platelets are cell fragments that derive from a big cell called megakaryocyte. They have a lifespan of 8-10 days and for this reason is why platelet transfusion tends to be given more frequently than red blood cell transfusion. Platelet transfusion is completed to stop hemorrhage in patients that have thrombocytopenia or suffer from platelet function defects. Thrombocytopenia is when a patient suffers deficiency in the number of platelets, meaning their platelets level amount is lower than usual. This is caused when not enough platelets is being produced inside the bone marrow. If a patient’s platelet count is too low, they can suffer from excessive bleeding if they overcome a minor bump or cut. The normal platelet count is between 150,000 – 400,000 per mm3 of blood any situation your platelet count drops below 50,000 per mm3 you are considered to be at increased risk for bleeding. IVIGThis can be given to you through your arm via a vein or IV. When someone gets an IVIg, it helps strengthen their immune system in order to fight infections and to stay healthy. Intravenous immunoglobulin can treat the following diseases:Immune deficiencies like immune thrombocytopeniaMyositisGuillain-Barre syndromeKawasaki diseaseLupusChronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathyNeurological diseases like myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosisPeople who receive bone marrow transplants may also use IVIg to prevent infections. Some patients use ivig rather than other medication in order to help treat their immune system difficulties. Sometimes patients may take IVIg along with immunosuppressants or other medications. People with immune deficiencies struggle to make antibodies, therefore their bodies can’t fight of certain germs that lead to infections. This puts them in more risk of becoming very sick. IVIg provide antibodies that the body can’t create on its own. Task 3 D3Blood transfusion involves taking blood from a donor and giving it to a receiver. There are many reasons for blood transfusion including:replacing blood loss during major surgery, childbirth or a severe accidenttreating inherited blood disorders, such as thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemiatreating anaemia that has failed to respond to other treatments; this is a condition where a person has low levels of red blood cellsUsually a plastic tube will be inserted into a vein in the arm. Each unit can take anytime between 30 minutes and four hours. The whole procedure can take a significant length on time depending on how much blood is needed. Blood donation is voluntarily so donors do not get paid to undergo this process. They are tested in order to ensure that the blood they are donating is as safe as possible for the receivers. After blood has been donated it is examined for the following infections:hepatitis Bhepatitis CsyphilisHIV and AIDShuman T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) – this is rare however it is a potentially serious virus, meaning with some people it can cause a type of leukaemia that can be very fatalIn order to get the right blood transfusion, patients must be properly identified. This is done by wearing an identification band with your correct details. Before you receive a bag of blood they will have to confirm your identity then you will be monitored closely during the process of the transfusion. Hepatitis B is when the liver becomes infected due to a virus that is spreading in the body and body fluids. Usually no obvious symptoms are seen in adults and typically passes in a few months without treatment. However in children it usually persists for years and may lead to liver damage eventually in their life. Hepatitis screening involves collecting a blood sample in order to test for any antigens or antibodies present. This will determine whether the patient has been infected with viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens are proteins that are present in different parts of the virus.There are three screening tests for hepatitis B, this involves: a hepatitis B surface antigen test, this test determines if a person currently has the infectiona hepatitis B core antibody test, this determines if a patient has ever once been infecteda hepatitis B surface antibody test, which determines if a patient has overcome the virus after infection, or has been vaccinated and is now immune to future infections. A reduction in hepatitis transmission has been achieved by screening blood donors for hepatitis B surface antigen, but it is not known what the effectiveness of screening donors for raised plasma alanine aminotransferase levels or hepatitis B core antibody will be.