PUBLIC POLICY AND HEALTH
Health and social care is one of the most important sectors of any society. It caters to millions of people all around the globe. The presence of inequalities proves to be a huge bane for all individuals and creates ruckus among different people. The different levels of the social strata are very important as it provides a strong understanding of the different characteristics of each level.
As said by Bacigalupe & Escolar-Pujolar (2014), threats of healthcare include different factors like social, cultural, economic, psychological and behavioral factors. The study is about the overview on social and economic inequalities of health and it address in non communicable disease. If someone thinks of social inequity they generally make the term of socio-economic class. This essay will forecast and discuss about the necessary theory on socioeconomic inequalities in health.
Social inequality is related or directly proportional to inequalities in health. They are going several research and policy making in receiving attention to get rid of social inequalities. It has been observed that social inequalities in healthcare are present in every society worldwide. There are many important social inequalities in exposing negative health outcomes around the environment, whereas economic inequality is defined by the difference provided in various measures among individuals. Economic inequality in healthcare also defined as the health gap or wealth inequality. It varies between economic structures, societies and historical periods. The scope of this paper analyzes how to measure equity in healthcare. A social and economical inequality includes variables like lack of education, low income and unemployment (Dahlgren, Whitehead 2017).
Socioeconomic inequalities in health discusses about the health first by focusing on self rated health status and cause mortality. Secondly it focuses on Non communicative disease and how they are related to each other. The dramatic review increases on inequalities summarizing the evolution of life expectancy. The discussion is bounded by its approach to health outcome and wide geographical scope. Health inequalities in socioeconomic inequity are defined as health resources between different populations under social condition in which people are born, work, live and grow. It has been seen that every year many children dies due to malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia and many other disease due to lack of social health and economic deficiencies. Research on health equities generally explains how people’s circumstances and social affect their health (Elgar et al. 2015). Two main views on socio economic inequality of health care are as follows:
1) Inequality is inevitable and desirable
2) Power domination or less powerful group
For example, health survey of England made a report on morbidity and mortality by taking class 1 and class 4 people. They came to a conclusion that class 1 people have longer life span whereas class 4 has shorter life span. Wales, Scotland and north Ireland have greater mortality than in South England where same things applicable for strokes and cancer. Higher the risk of chronic illness is observed higher with low socioeconomic status
These documents identify a gradient on socio-economic status influencing health. Grintsova, Maier & Mielck (2014) stated that socioeconomic inequalities are somehow helps in relating mortality against social position. However, there are many types of social inequality, for example gender and race may be mitigated through social inequality.
Evidence for socioeconomic inequality
In discussion with the above report it has been seen that the difference between health and social position is seen between individuals rather than large society. Explanation focuses on the way how an individual leads their life in different social group. Alcohol, smoking exercise and diet are taken into account as they are the voluntary choices. The mortality increases around the region in mid 1990s have been widely figured out. It summarizes the data between 1989 and 2003. They replicate the various ways of increasing life expectancy as well as the gap analysis in most of the stated.
Between the year 1991 and 1994, Soviet republics birth rate for males declined by 4 years and 2.3 years for females. Same goes for Russia where male experienced declination in birth rate for more than 6 years and females for more than 3 years. Individual levels and population have provided evidence on socio economic inequalities. Synchronizing all these figures the mortality crisis has been replicated through variety of angles. After a long term of scrutinization they found that morality crisis has been largely increased due to risk of cardiovascular disease among lower economic status and increase rate of accidents and death due to injuries (Krieger, Waterman, Chen, Soobader & Subramanian 2016).
This report also defines and found that a large gap has been occurred in social and economic inequality in Australia. The researchers suggested that socioeconomic rate has been accounted to 20% to 50% of the risk to poorer people those who are mentally and physically sick in Australia. It has been also notice that women aged between ’20 to 60′ have been screened for cervical cancer and women aged between ’50 to 69′ is suffering from mammogram from last two years. Down syndrome in Australia is increasing from 18 years in 1963 to 60 years in 2002 (Moor et al. 2015).
Possible recommendation has been highlighted by taking an account from different countries.
Moving further into the current evidence some recommendation to be followed through strong theories and recommendation that needed to claim against inequalities. Over various debates some evidence proved that there is still lagging in social and economic inequality. Palència et al. (2014) opined that certain evidence said that number of human involved is sentential because growth of social and economic equality affects massive population. In economic way discussion with the above report it has been seen that the difference between health and social position is seen between individuals rather than large society. Explanation focuses on the way how an individual leads their life in different social group. Health inequalities in socioeconomic inequity are defined as health resources between different populations under social condition in which people are born, work, live and grow. It has been seen that every year many children dies due to malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia and many other disease due to lack of social health and economic deficiencies. Research on health equities generally explains how people’s circumstances and social affect their health. At last it may be said that first they have to identify when and how inequalities can be mitigated. Here are some of the possible recommendations to be followed.
Elaborating the subject of experiencing racism, stigmatization and discrimination and their effect on neurobiological as well as on behavior.
Developing of an integrative study, that creates a pathway between racial related risk and socio economic service for intervening health outcomes and biological system.
Identify of health in enhancing resource and cultural strength in ethnic/racial group, and their roles in socioeconomic inequality (Layte & Whelan 2014)
However, to improve their understanding how and why Social and economic inequalities are occurring several health outcomes and longer set of social detriment need to scrutinized. It has been also observed that there is no such sociological survey with sufficient data on behavioral factors and health outcome. Levine et al. (2016) reflected that, to mitigate the issue, health equalities has been developed. The module of Social Inequalities in health simply discusses and made a self report on physical health problem. This essay also discusses that socio economic inequality is forwarded through many non economic factors such as racism and stratification. On behalf of these given factors many members are getting adequate help from social institution through education and workforce. However it may be said that the capital investment is the most important factor for human happiness. Good capitalist state provide sponsored social service to needy. Still problems are arising to ensure equal distribution or equal responsibility from social institution in respect of capital investment (Mackenbach et al. 2015).
Bacigalupe, A., & Escolar-Pujolar, A. (2014). The impact of economic crises on social inequalities in health: what do we know so far?. International journal for equity in health, 13(1), 52. Retrieved on 17th July 2017. Retrieved from: https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-9276-13-52
Dahlgren, D., & Whitehead, M. (2017). European Strategies for tackling social inequalities in health: levelling up part 2. Health. Retrieved on 8th July 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.thehealthwell.info/search-results/european-strategies-tackling-social-inequalities-health-levelling-part-2
Elgar, F. J., Pförtner, T. K., Moor, I., De Clercq, B., Stevens, G. W., & Currie, C. (2015). Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health 2002–2010: a time-series analysis of 34 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The Lancet, 385(9982), 2088-2095. Retrieved on 14th September 2017. Retrieved from: https://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/10023/6645/Lancet_authordraft_Sept22.pdf
Grintsova, O., Maier, W., & Mielck, A. (2014). Inequalities in health care among patients with type 2 diabetes by individual socio-economic status (SES) and regional deprivation: a systematic literature review. International journal for equity in health, 13(1), 43. Retrieve on 14th August. Retrieved from: https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-9276-13-43
Krieger, N., Waterman, P. D., Chen, J. T., Soobader, M. J., & Subramanian, S. V. (2016). Monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and violence: geocoding and choice of area-based socioeconomic measures—the public health disparities geocoding project (US). Public health reports. Retrieved on 14th August. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497538/pdf/12766219.pdf
Layte, R., & Whelan, C. T. (2014). Who feels inferior? A test of the status anxiety hypothesis of social inequalities in health. European Sociological Review, 30(4), 525-535. Retrieved on 9th August 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/100237/1/776687018.pdf
Levine, R. S., Foster, J. E., Fullilove, R. E., Fullilove, M. T., Briggs, N. C., Hull, P. C., … & Hennekens, C. H. (2016). Black-white inequalities in mortality and life expectancy, 1933–1999: implications for healthy people 2010. Public health reports. Retrieved on 17th July 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497364/pdf/12042611.pdf?version=meter+at+null&module=meter-Links&pgtype=article&contentId=&mediaId=&referrer=&priority=true&action=click&contentCollection=meter-links-click
Mackenbach, J. P., Kulhánová, I., Bopp, M., Deboosere, P., Eikemo, T. A., Hoffmann, R., … & Regidor, E. (2015). Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: A test of the “fundamental causes” theory of social inequalities in health. Social Science & Medicine, 127, 51-62. Retrieved on 17th January 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Johan_Mackenbach/publication/263503024_Variations_in_the_relation_between_education_and_cause-specific_mortality_in_19_European_populations_A_test_of_the_fundamental_causes_theory_of_social_inequalities_in_health/links/53dfc7d30cf27a7b8306b71f
Moor, I., Richter, M., Ravens-Sieberer, U., Ottová-Jordan, V., Elgar, F. J., & Pförtner, T. K. (2015). Trends in social inequalities in adolescent health complaints from 1994 to 2010 in Europe, North America and Israel: The HBSC study. The european journal of public health, 25(suppl_2), 57-60. Retrieved on 14th November 2017. Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/25/suppl_2/57/590413
Palència, L., Malmusi, D., De Moortel, D., Artazcoz, L., Backhans, M., Vanroelen, C., & Borrell, C. (2014). The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe. Social Science & Medicine, 117, 25-33. Retrieved on 20th September 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/download/45723235/The_influence_of_gender_equality_policie20160517-437-14na6tg.pdf