Prescription Opioid dependence

Prescription Opioid dependence, abuse and misuse accompanied escalating increases in negative impact on mental health in the United States is a wake-up call for a comprehensive service delivery system to address the problem. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) services in one affair targeted at this crisis.
The use of prescription opioids medication in the effective management of pain and concomitant use of multiple prescribed and illicit substances has led to misuse and abuse. Also, the increasing social acceptability for using these medications for other purposes and the aggressive marketing by pharmaceutical companies are contributing factors Studies shows that younger age (18-25 years old) male gender, underlying psychiatric disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder, nicotine use, exposure to sexual assault, a history of illegal substance use disorder and a family history of substance use disorder are associated risk factors to prescription opioid abuse.
Often time the Opioid Crisis is viewed from the perspective of abuse which refers to the habitual use of opioids without prescription, diverting it from the lawful channel to unlawful channel to be sold or given out for use illegally but frequently it is due to misuse which stem from unintentional overdose on prescription opioids that result from over prescription, misunderstanding of prescription instructors , self-medication for sleep, mood, or anxiety symptom and craving driven by opioid use disorder. Whatever is driving the epidemic , the untoward effect of opioids overdose to enormous and the causes of dependence, abuse and misuse is indicated in the management of opioid overdose using medication-assisted treatment combined with behavior therapy.
As a direct result of the increased prescription of opioids in the United States, the rate at which opioids are being abused has skyrocketed. According to the data from a 2012 National survey on drug use shows that 12.5 million Americans misused prescription Drugs, a considerable increase from 4.9 million in 1992. This was mostly due to shift in opinion surrounding the treatment of pain in the 1990’s. Doctors and physicians were scrutinized for undertreating pain, which led to the up-tick in prescriptions. In 2012, the number of prescriptions matched that of the adult population in the United States (259 million).