p.p1 ships, and raid Spanish settlements, even though England

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The seventieth century was the time of colonization and conflict in the northern continent. Three European powers placed three out-posts in three corners of the continent within three years of each other. The Spanish at Santa Fe in 1610, the French at Quebec in 1608, and for the future of the United States, the English at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Religious conflict is what disrupted England, after King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church, which was the beginning of the English Protestant Reformation. After the Protestant Elizabeth came down from the English throne in 1558, Protestantism was the dominant religion of England. This made issues with Catholic Spain even worse. The English crown took away Catholic Irish lands and replaced them with new Protestant landlords from Scotland and England. The Catholic Irish needed help from Catholic Spain to dethrone the new Protestant English queen. Elizabeth sought to advertise the twin goals of Protestantism, to steal Spanish treasure ships, and raid Spanish settlements, even though England and Spain were at peace. The coast of Newfoundland was the where the English first attempt at colonization. This effort failed when Sir Humphrey Gilbert died at sea in 1583. Gilbert inspired his brother Sir Walter Raleigh to try again.
Raleigh started an expedition that landed in 1585 on North Carolina’s Roanoke Island. After several failed attempts, the Roanoke colony disappeared. These English failures at colonization were embarrassing compared to the accomplishments of the Spanish Empire, whose profits were making Spain rich. Philip II of Spain, foe of the Protestant Reformation, used his royal gains to assemble an “Invincible Armada” of ships to invade England. In 1588, the Spanish attacked the English Channel. The English fought back using weapons that were faster, and more maneuverable. They caused heavy damage on the Spanish ships. Spanish Armada marked the beginning of the end of Spanish royal dreams, even though Spain’s New World empire would not end for three more centuries. England now had many of the same qualities that Spain had of its colonizing adventure a century earlier: strong, religiously united, and a sense of nationalism.
In 1604 England and Spain signed a peace treaty. The English people wanted to start their own colonial empire in the New World. Its population was grew from three million people in 1550 to four million in 1600. In the English countryside, landlords enclosed croplands for sheep grazing, forcing many small farmers off the land. Then economic depression hit in the late 1500s,  and farmers became poor beggars in cities like Bristol and London. London held twice as many people as did all of England. In the early 1600s, the joint-stock company was perfected. It helped number of investors, called “adventurers,” to pool their capital. Peace with Spain gave English the opportunity for colonization. Population growth provided the workers. Unemployment provided the motives. Joint-stock companies provided the financial manners. This helped make a historic effort to establish an English achievement in North American. The charter of the Virginia Company was an important document in American history. This was put out to ensure and help reinforce English colonies.
in 1606, the Virginia Company’s set a sail three ships and landed near Chesapeake Bay, where Indians attacked them. Virginia was saved by the leadership of a young adventurer named Captain John Smith. Smith was abducted by the Indians and was subjected to executed by the Indian chief Powhatan. Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas had saved Smith by placing her head between his and the war clubs of the Indians. Pocahontas was the negotiator between the Indians and the settlers.

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