p.p1 a medical model of stress was being developed.

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During this era also, researchers also began to explore relationships between socio-demographic factors, stress, and its physical effects (Coburn, 1975); stress and environmental situations such as cataclysmic events, and daily hassles (Lazarus & Cohen, 1977). Later, Cohen (1983), differentiated between short term (acute) and long term (chronic) stressors. The concept of “Perceived Stress” and ways to evaluate it also surfaced (Cohen, 1983). The term “Perceived Stress” was defined by Cohen (1983, p. 385) as the “degree to which situations in one’s own life situations are appraised as stressful”. By the end of the 1980s, researchers had established a number of psychological and physical dangers of stress (Billings & Moos, 1984). 
By the 1990’s, the term stressor had become even more well-established. In 1993, Werner, cited in Lyon (2012) significantly modified and extended the notion that stress and health-related responses were triggered from events. She developed a framework to examine what she referred to as trigger events or stimuli that resulted in the experience of stress or significant physical or 29 

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psychosocial reaction. Werner, like previous researchers, labelled the trigger event a stressor, but she extended the idea by her categorizing them into four groups, namely: event, situation, conditions, and cues. At around the same time, a medical model of stress was being developed. Selye (1993) describes stress as a state of distress which can be measured by increased heart rate and elevated blood pressure. It was observed that lower levels of stress produced in individuals a resilience to cope with stress, however, higher levels of stress experienced over longer periods has been observed to lower levels of immunity (Stein & Miller, 1993) and reduce life satisfaction (Evans, Bullinger, & Hygge, 1998).