On latitude line. The longitude are horizontal lines with

On October 22, 1707 almost two, thousand
man lost their lives as the Isles of Scilly as four British warships crashed on
shallow water under the command of Sir Clowdisley Shovel(1). On the shallow
water, the ships were caught on the rocks, sank almost instantly with only few
men surviving this catastrophe, and washed up on the shore alive one of which
was Sir Clowdisley himself.  When asked
about the catastrophe he claimed that kept record of the fleet’s location, however
on later inspection his calculations were inaccurate (2).   During the
exploration era, beginning of 15th century to the end of 18thcenty,
accidents like that were very common as sailors were prone to getting lost at
the sea it is almost impossible to pinpoint where you are just by looking
around you, as there is nothing but water. In order to navigate the sea
accurately with ought using modern satellites and Global Positioning Systems
(GPS) the sailors needed a lot of variables to determine where you are one of
the most important variables was keeping exact time on the ship. For the 21st
century, the idea of keeping time is trivial however during the time of Galileo
Galilei or Isaac newton the task of keeping precise time on a moving ship was thought to be an impossible task until John Harrison came


The earth is platted with imaginary
lines of latitude and longitude that data as far as to 150 A.D. The latitude
are vertical lines, each line being the same distance. The latitude lines go through
the North Pole and the South Pole the distance between each line is about sixty
Nautical miles witch is equivalent to hundred and ten kilometers. There is 15º
difference between each latitude line. The longitude are horizontal lines with different
lengths that travel from East to West, the equator is the longest line of
longitude (3). Sailors use these imaginary lines to determine where they
are in the world.  The position of the
ship relevant to the line latitude at the time was relatively east to determine
just by looking to the sky, the position of the stars, or the trajectory of the
sun would show the sailors where they are. However neither the sky or the sea
could give any clue to the sailors about where they are on the longitude lines
(4). This is where the idea of time come  

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