Obesity 200,000+ deaths each year, which makes the disease

Obesity is one of the major diseases
that lead to death, blindness, and other health related issues. Furthermore, Obesity
has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). this diseases is categorized
by insulin resistance, insulin hyposecretion and hyperglycemia. in 2013
diabetes was shown to have effected 382 million individuals worldwide, and its
predicated to increase in the year 2035 by 592 million. However, the term
disability was created due to the strong association of obesity and diabetes,
which suggests a causal pathophysiological link between both phenomena. The effect
of diabetes goes beyond chronic hyperglycemia, however it’s been shown to be
the leading cause of blindness, kidney diseases and amputations in working-age
adults. Individuals diagnosed with this disease are more likely to experience
cardiovascular complications and strokes.  The disease overall has resulted in
complications and death of 200,000+ deaths each year, which makes the disease
one of the major causes of mortality in the U.S.

usages as increased over the years, individuals are able to have easier access
to tobacco compare to past generations. Tobacco is the leading causes of
preventable illness and death in the United States. The usage of tobacco have
been linked to different cancers and some chronic lung diseases such as
emphysema and bronchitis, heart disease, pregnancy-related problems, and many
other serious health problems. Tobacco is a product made totally or partly from
leaf tobacco as raw material, this protected is intended for smoking, sucking,
chewing or snuffing. Tobacco product contains nicotine; due to this addictive
ingredient individuals become hooked to the product and are unable to function
without the use of this product on a daily bases.  Some countries have passed legislation
restricting tobacco advertising and have a system set in place to regulate
individuals who are allowed to purchase tobacco products. Plus, systems are
even put in place to restrict where individuals are allowed to smoke tobacco
product, in order to reduce the risk of second hand smoking.

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Depression is an illness that isn’t
taken seriously by most individual; this illness can negatively affect the way
an individual feels, act, or think. Depression can affect anyone, based on my
research it is shown that depression affect one in 15 adults in any given year.

Plus, one out of six individual will experience depression in their lifetime.

But in order to be diagnosis with depression an individual must be effected for
at least two weeks. Moreover, woman more than men are more likely to be
affected by this illness.  However, it’s
a mental illness that can be treated and managed by medication.  Individual who are depress have a lack of
interest in their daily activity and are sad most times during those activities.

Furthermore, depression has been shown to lead to different emotional and
physical problems, which can effect or lessen an individual ability to function
at work and at home.

The use of Mobile health (mHealth) apps are on
the rise and is being used and integrated into clinical practice, and is used
as an education tool by patients health consumer both independently or
collaborated with their healthcare providers. According to my research found
that smartphone and tablets hold the key to more nurses to be able to diagnose
patients with chronic health issues such as obesity, smoking, and
depression easily, which are the cause of preventable death and disabilities.  The use of mobile health app can help
individuals connect easily with their providers, which allows the patient to
have more control of their healthcare. Furthermore, this helps individual
better manage their own care and keep track of health without having to relay
on their provider or healthcare professional. 

“The latest advances in eHealth and
mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile
applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the
clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in
mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily
clinical decisions” (Martínez-Pérez,
B. & García-Gómez, J. M. (2014).

“Creative use of new mobile and wearable health
information and sensing technologies (mHealth) has the potential to reduce the
cost of health care and improve well-being in numerous ways. research is needed
to examine the potential, as well as the challenges, of utilizing mobile
technologies to improve health outcomes. Currently, evidence is sparse for the
efficacy of mHealth. Although these technologies may be appealing and seemingly
innocuous, research is needed to assess when, where, and for whom mHealth
devices, apps, and systems are efficacious” (Kumar & Hedeker, 2013).

            “The development, adoption,
and implementation of a broad range of new eHealth applications (such as online
health information websites, interactive electronic health records, health
decision support programs, tailored health education programs, health care
system portals, mobile health communication programs, and advanced telehealth
applications) holds tremendous promise to increase consumer and provider access
to relevant health information, enhance the quality of care, reduce health care
errors, increase collaboration, and encourage the adoption of healthy
behaviors” (Kreps &
Neuhauser, 2010).

“With the growth of new and exciting health information
technology opportunities, however, comes the daunting responsibility to design
interoperable, easy to use, engaging, and accessible eHealth applications that
communicate the right information needed to guide health care and health
promotion for diverse audiences” (Kreps
& Neuhauser, 2010).

“The prevalence of obesity has increased from
23% to 31% over the recent past in the United States, and 66% of adults are
overweight.1,2 Proposed
explanations for the obesity epidemic include societal changes that promote
both inactivity and food consumption.3 The
fact that the increase in obesity during this period cannot be explained by
genetics4,5 and
has occurred among all socioeconomic groups1 provides
support for a broad set of social and environmental explanations” (Christakis & Fowler, 2007).

“More than 50% of smokers have contact with a healthcare
provider annually, providing key opportunities for counseling and treatment .The
PHS guideline also recommends that individual, group, and telephone counseling;
and provision of first-line medications for tobacco dependence that are
approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as effective methods for
increasing successful cessation attempts. 
Despite the PHS recommendations, clinicians and healthcare systems often
do not screen and treat tobacco use consistently and effectively. Numerous
studies reported that computer-based approaches may assist evidence-based
practice at the point of care. In particular, computer-based systems have
influenced healthcare provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines for
health promotion and screening” (Cato & Bakken, 2014).

“In a randomized, controlled trial, the delivery of
computer-generated smoking cessation care reminders to healthcare providers
resulted in more frequently offered smoking cessation interventions when
compared to no reminders. Mobile technology provides individuals with
ubiquitous access to resources such as e-mails, text messaging and social
networking sites (e.g., wikis, blogs). In addition, mobile devices are easy to
use for individuals who are less familiar with computer technology and the
Internet. About 25 % of mobile phone users use their phone rather than a
computer to access to online resources” (Cato & Bakken, 2014).

“Searches identified 25 studies
that evaluated cell phone voice and text messaging interventions, with 20
randomized controlled trials and 5 controlled studies. Nineteen studies
assessed outcomes of care and six assessed processes of care. Selected studies
included 38,060 participants with 10,374 adults and 27,686 children. They
covered 12 clinical areas and took place in 13 countries. Frequency of message
delivery ranged from 5 times per day for diabetes and smoking cessation support
to once a week for advice on how to overcome barriers and maintain regular
physical activity. Significant improvements were noted in compliance with
medicine taking, asthma symptoms, HbA1C, stress levels, smoking quit rates, and
self-efficacy. Process improvements were reported in lower failed appointments,
quicker diagnosis and treatment, and improved teaching and training. Cost per
text message was provided by two studies. The findings that enhancing standard
care with reminders, disease monitoring and management, and education through
cell phone voice and short message service can help improve health outcomes and
care processes have implications for both patients and providers” (Krishna & Balas, 2009).

mHealth field focuses on the use of mobile technologies to support hospital
care, healthy behavior, patient monitoring, and educational awareness.  It is a new filed that is developing rapidly,
with thousands of mHealth applications developed within the last 2 years alone”
(Househ & Alofaysan, 2012).

“The use of mobile devices by health care professionals
(HCPs) has transformed many aspects of clinical practice. Mobile
devices have become commonplace in health care settings, leading to rapid
growth in the development of medical software applications (apps) for these
platforms.Numerous apps are now available to assist HCPs with many important
tasks, such as: information and time management; health record maintenance and
access; communications and consulting; reference and information gathering;
patient management and monitoring; clinical decision-making; and medical
education and training. Mobile devices and apps provide many benefits for HCPs,
perhaps most significantly increased access to point-of-care tools, which has
been shown to support better clinical decision-making and improved patient
outcomes” (Ventola, 2014).

“Chronic diseases like diabetes, asthma,
and obesity account for 46% of global disease burden. The traditional model of
episodic care in clinic and hospital-based settings is suboptimal for improving
chronic disease outcomes. Mobile communication devices, in conjunction with
Internet and social media, present opportunities to enhance disease prevention
and management by extending health interventions beyond the reach of
traditional care—an approach referred to as mHealth. However, mHealth is
emerging as a patchwork of incompatible applications (“apps”) serving narrow,
albeit valuable, needs, and thus could benefit from more coordinated
development” (Estrin &
Sim, 2010).


“Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie
outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of
privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data.

However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and
Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and
patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in
Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured
Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would
be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth
apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors
make improvements in the way they communicate and store data” (He & Nahrstedt, 2014).