Name:Tutor:University:Course:Date: subject of controversy due to their abilities to

Name:Tutor:University:Course:Date:

Quantum
and Post-Quantum CryptographyRecent years have prompted research into quantum computers.
Quantum computers have been the subject of controversy due to their abilities
to solve complex mathematical phenomena that have been primarily developed as
the basis of information encryption. Given that these large quantum computers
are built, they shall inevitably compromise the key cryptosystem that is
currently in use. This would jeopardize the confidentiality presently enjoyed
by digital communication and internet users worldwide. The primary objective of
post-quantum cryptography is to create cryptographic systems that can
interoperate with existing communication protocols. This paper shall look into
common cryptographic topics and reflect the effect of post cryptographic
quantum computing on common information encryption. Quantum key distribution Quantum key distribution is indeed a successful application
to cryptography, quantum information that utilizes the quantum mechanics theory
to secure data (Quantum.ukzn.ac.za.). Quantum key distribution generates a
random key between two points over an insecure network. Quantum key
distribution is founded the superposition principle and the Heisenberg’s
principle.  A one- time pad encryption
scheme is created and implemented using the securely distributed quantum
key.  A great protocol of quantum key
distribution is the “BB84” protocol in which single qubits are chosen
randomly from {???, ???, ???, ???} states and sent. For QKD
the key used for encryption should only be used once. This removes the chances
of prediction from an eavesdropper or from the sender/receiver. Hence Quantum
key distribution guarantees integrity over an insecure channel unlike in
post-quantum cryptography whose key algorithms’ security rely on tough
mathematical problems and the capability of a quantum computer, one that ideally
runs Shor’s algorithm, to solve them these problems.  Symmetric cryptography & Symmetric key management
systems and protocols  Cryptography
involves the process of making messages non-readable by encypting them with
different algorithms. Cryptographic algorithms are grouped into two types of
encryption: symmetric and asymmetric encryption.In Symmetric encryption a
single key is used for the encryption and decryption proccess.  A crucial problem that lies in
symmetric key cryptography is the distribution of the secret key. The key
distribution must happen secretly. However key sharing can happen in one some
ways; a trusted third party could get involved in sharing the key with the
recipient. Alternatively, the sender can physically deliver the key to the
receiver. If the sender and receiver have previously used a key, they can
communicate the new key through encryption using the old key. Nonetheless this
option of distribution is hazardous because of the fact that an eavesdropper
can gain access to the old key and acquire the new key by intercepting
communication of the new key

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 Hash functionsA cryptographic hash function receives
a message as input and produces what is known as a message digest of
predetermined fixed length. One property of a cryptographic hash function is
that the digest from the hash function for any given message is impossible to
compute for those with a given hash. Another property of the cryptographic functions
have is uniqueness There are collisions of hash functions put the probability
is low 1?e/(?k(k?1)/2N). However with the development of quantum computers, it
is very likely that using the hash value, the initial message could be computed
and derived successfully. This would in a high magnitude compromise the
integrity of information passed over an insecure channel. Other practical
applications that use hash functions such as digital signatures and
authentication also face an integrity threat following the development
post-quantum cryptography. 

Public key cryptography Public key cryptography also known
as asymmetric encryption uses two non-identical for communication. The two keys
involved are a public and a public key. Each of these two keys have different roles;
the public key encrypts the message while the private key decrypts the message.
Private keys can however not be computed from public keys. Public keys are
therefore shared hence allowing users a convenient content encryption platform.
Given that the public keys have to be shared for decryption and encryption to
take place , they are therefore stored within digital certificates to
facilitate structured and secure sharing among communicators. Users, therefore,
have them at their disposal for encryption during information sharing. However,
only the users of private keys can decrypt the information.

Shor’s algorithm

Shor’s
algorithm was developed by a mathematician known as Peter Shor. His innovation
brought about a quantum algorithm for integer factorization.  All it takes is one post cryptography quantum
machine with enough qubits to solve quantum gates for 0((log N) 2(log log N) (log log log N)). For this
reason, therefore, these quantum computers can break public key cryptography
which is based on Shor’s algorithm.  The
public key encryption is pegged on a principle huge numbers are computationally
impractical.  This phenomenon is however
only valid for classic computers. The development of quantum computers
withstanding, software developers need to reach common ground with mechatronic
engineers in developing computing systems that shall not compromise the
integrity of information reliance and computing.