NAME

NAME; SAN’GANYI B.N. I.D 650750
COURSE CODE; IRL4020 INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL LAW

TOPIC; MERITS AND DEMERITS ON THE PETITION TO HAVE THE GOVERNMENT INVESTIGATED

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DUE DATE; 22 October 2018

ABSTRACT.
The International Criminal Court (ICC) expects to advance equity, as well as peace. It has been generally reprimanded for doing not one or the other, yet it needs to battle with some extreme basic and political troubles: it has constrained assets, it faces institutional confinements, it is controlled by states, and it is censured for a supposed selectivity in the manner in which it administers equity. In any case, the ICC could contribute fundamentally to the advancement of global equity and peace, and majorly affect the counteractive action of wrongdoing, since its indictments speak to an unmistakable risk to exceedingly put people who perpetrate genuine violations. While this article focuses on crafted by the ICC in Africa, the main mainland where it has issued arraignments against suspected offenders, it likewise takes a gander at its endeavors on different landmasses. It contends that, in the bigger universal setting, the commitment of the ICC to global equity and peace relies upon its institutional power and the help it gets from states, all alone fair work, and in transit it is seen by potential lawbreakers and unfortunate casualties in the world.

DEVELOPMENT.
The International Criminal Court (ICC) was made in 2002. The point of the ICC is to put a conclusion to exemption for culprits of the most genuine violations of worry to the worldwide network, and to add to the aversion of such wrongdoings. The ICC can arraign any individual anyplace on the planet, yet for associated culprits who are natives with a state which has not endorsed the ICC Statute, a United Nations Security Council (UNSC) goals is important.

In spite of the moral and human rights motivation of the ICC, and its aspiration to rebuff offenders and avoid wrongdoings, it isn’t constantly bought in to by global associations, states and individuals. Starting
. As of 2013, a majority of states in the world have ratified the Rome Statute that established the institution. The ICC has jurisdiction with respect to a particular range of crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and in 2017 it may be able to investigate the crime of aggression committed by one state in another state. (Médard, C. 2008)
The ICC Preamble declares that these are serious crimes which threaten the peace, security and well-being of the world. However, the terms ‘peace’ and ‘justice’ are not defined in the ICC Preamble, and this leads to different interpretations, as peace and justice for some can mean conditions of war and injustice for others.

Mau eviction case.
The Environment and Land Court in Narok County had declined to stop the Mau Forest evictions in a case filed by Kericho Governor Paul Chepkwony.The Governor says the eviction is politically motivated as the attempt in 2005 was stopped by the court, and now the ‘cartels’ are back and want to forcefully take the pieces from their rightful owners.
The government has been accused of carrying out ‘brutal’ Mau evictions by torching houses, intimidating people and forcing children to sleep in the cold. A section of leaders blamed Narok county commissioner George Natembeya over the evictions from the Mau Forest.Bomet Central MP Ronald Tonui and a section of MCAs from Narok accused the county commissioner of “being too harsh and inconsiderate” to people and property. They said evictees, including young children, are sleeping out in the cold after their houses were torched (Klopp, J. M., & Sang, J. K. 2011)
The Nation also learnt yesterday that the emotive debate over the Mau Forest evictions would head to The Hague-based International Criminal Court (ICC). A source who sought anonymity revealed that the evictees’ lawyers had written to the ICC over the violation of Article 7 of the Rome Statute.
Victim concern
Families were separated and some children left stranded, not knowing the whereabouts of their parents. Grace Rono has four children with her, but she does not know who their parents are. She says she has been with the children for a week and has been trying to locate their parents in vain. (Baldyga, T. J., Miller 2010)
When the eviction started people were beaten and families were separated. I have been staying with them since as they don’t know their parents’ whereabouts. This government (Narc) does not respect the rule of law. It is unfortunate schools have been closed with children denied their universal right to education. It a tragedy Kenya is being ranked with failed States. (Getz, K. A. 2013)
Victim participation can be one of the major contributors to the effectiveness, credibility, and fairness of the ICC; and this is a major imperative in relation to Africa from where the vast majority of ICC cases have come from.. The injured individual support framework at the ICC is administered by Article 68(3) of the Rome Statute, which states: “Where the individual interests of the unfortunate casualties are influenced, the Court will allow their perspectives and worries to be displayed and considered at phases of the procedures resolved to be proper by the Court… “Given the vagueness of this Article, it has been left to the jurisprudence of the Court to determine just how victims can participate in proceedings.
The International Criminal Court says it has received a petition from a Kenyan lawyer who wants the Kenyan government investigated for crimes against humanity allegedly committed in during eviction of families from Mau Forest. But the court is categorical that the next step will largely remain open as experts in the Office of the Prosecutor assess whether recent evictions fall within its jurisdiction in the first place.
BENEFIT’S OF TAKING A CASES TO ICC

It is a Global Court for the frail – Around the globe, casualties of annihilation, violations against mankind and atrocities are requesting equity and review. By making the ICC and Rome Statute arrangement of worldwide equity genuinely GLOBAL, people associated with carrying out these generally disliked wrongdoings can be considered responsible in official courtrooms around the globe.

It is a Court of final resort – The ICC prosecutes people for atrocities, violations against mankind and destruction. Yet, just if governments don’t do as such first.

It gives us a way to worldwide peace – Grave violations undermine the peace, security and prosperity of the world.

It is an image of expectation – Throughout history, a large number of kids, ladies and men have been casualties of inconceivable outrages. In the twentieth century alone, an expected 200 million individuals kicked the bucket because of contention, slaughters and abuse. That is around 1 in each 27 passings.

It is free and unbiased – One of the fundamental accomplishments and mainstays of the Rome Statute is the autonomy of the ICC, including the examiner and judges, from governments and from the United Nations Security Council. The ICC Rome Statute conveys with it shields against politically inspired examinations and indictment.

the court’s basic leadership process is customary law, which implies that judges, and not a jury, choose the destiny of the blamed dependent on lawful priority and information of the law. In spite of the fact that this is in opposition to the United States legitimate framework, it unquestionably has its advantages. The custom-based law hone certainly guarantees that the privileges of the person, and additionally the discernable quality of the court are taken care of by experts. This is imperative with a worldwide gathering as a result of the immense contrasts between many legal frameworks. A common law court at the worldwide level is just not viable. By conceding the destiny of inductees to the judges, an arrangement of governing rules has additionally been incorporated into the Rome Statute and is in this way used by the court. The interests framework for the ICC makes a climate of decency and equity that ensures all people, from the respondents to the people in question, of their supposed wrongdoings. Lee, B. J. (2009
In the ICC an appeal can not only be granted for guilty verdict, but also an acquittal. This additional appeal gives the prosecutor a second chance to submit additional evidence that may change the determination of the judgment. In creating a system in which the court can interpret international criminal law, it has correctly identified the issue that needs to be addressed in order for the court to blossom and reach its full potential. It will need to create a system in which precedence can be established and therefore common law is correctly carried out.

DEMERITS.
As much the case is still in the Kenyan courts the following demerits will face the petition on its jurisdiction of the court.
The case being already heard in the Kenyan courts the ICC will have no obligations but to have the case take its way until, there is loophole to join. The case may be away from ICC operations.
The accused despite being Kenyan civilians given land as squatters it is hard for ICC to interfere settlement of people in need of free land, despite a rough eviction with sovereign Kenya government decision’s to secure the may forest…
Over many years justice delivery, despite the Governor may need quick action the ICC takes a lengthy time to ensure sufficient evidence.
legitimacy, is another problem at ICC, as the court selects and picks certain cases the picked sections may be not at the Governors interest as he has his own issues that he feels they should be addressed.

CONCLUSION
The mau civilians given the land by the government to settle in for a while they have no obligations but to move and ensure the government buffer zones are free from unnecessary

REFERENCES.
Arsanjani, M. H. (2009). The International criminal court and national amnesty laws. In Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting (Vol. 93, pp. 65-68).
Baldyga, T. J., Miller, S. N., Driese, K. L., ; Gichaba, C. M. (2008). Assessing land cover change in Kenya’s Mau Forest region using remotely sensed data. African Journal of Ecology, 46(1), 46-54.
Boone, C. (2012). Land conflict and distributive politics in Kenya. African Studies Review, 55(1), 75-103.
Getz, K. A. (2013). International codes of conduct: An analysis of ethical reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(7), 567-577.

Klopp, J. M. (2000). Pilfering the public: the problem of land grabbing in contemporary Kenya. Africa Today, 7-26

Klopp, J. M., & Sang, J. K. (2011). Maps, power, and the destruction of the Mau Forest in Kenya. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 125-134.
Lee, B. J. (2009). The International Criminal Court. Fla. Coastal LJ, 2, 197.
Médard, C. (2008). Key issues in disentangling the Kenyan crisis: evictions, autochthony and land privatization.
Paust, J. (2010). The reach of ICC jurisdiction over nationals.
The nation newsroom, Wayne one 2017, onset of may chaos and eviction of illegal inhabitants.

NAME

NAME : NURUL ALIA BINTI ABDUL RAZALI
MATRIC NO : EIA1610161
ASSIGNMENT 1
Explain the effect of an expansionary fiscal policy in the classical model when it is done through the following method;
Expansionary fiscal policy involves the government seeking to increase the aggregate demand (AD) through higher government spending and lower tax. Usually, it is financed by increasing the government borrowing and selling bonds to the private sector.

An increase in government borrowing.

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Initially, the market equilibrium is at point E where supply of loanable funds (SS) equal to demand of loanable funds (DD). At that point, the interest rate at ro and saving (S0) equal to investment (I0).
As borrowing increases, the government have to pay more interest rate payments to those who hold bonds. If government borrows from the supply of loanable funds (SS) which is available from workers, it increases the demand for such funds and forces interest rates up where the demand for loanable funds (DD) shift to the right from I0 to I+(G-T). At the higher interest rate which is r1, people will consume less so consumption (C) declines while return on saving (S) increases and the supply of loanable funds (SS) increases from S0 = I0 to S1 = I + (G-T). At interest rate (r1), supply of loanable funds (SS) is increases to the point F. The higher the interest rate (r) , the lower the borrowing by firms for investment purposes. The government borrowing ‘crowds out’ private borrowing where at r1 private investment decreases from I0 to I1.
An increase in government spending (G) where the government borrowing is increase matches the decreased in private consumption (C) and investment (I).

An increase in money supply.

Initially, the labor market equilibrium is when labor supply (Ns) is equal to labor demand (Nd) at point E. At that point, employment at N0, output at Y0 and price at P0.
When money supply (Ms) is increases, it will shift the aggregate demand (AD) to the right from AD0 to AD1. At point Y0. Money supply (Ms) does not have effect on Y because output is fixed.

When the agregate demand (AD) is increase, aggregate demand (AD) is greater than aggregate supply (AS). So, there is excess demand of goods. When people demanded for goods is high, while the output is fixed at Y0, the price (P) will increase from P0 to P1 due to high demand of goods. Money supply has no effect at total output because output is fixed.

The reduction on the marginal tax rate.

By increasing the disposable income of households, a tax cut would stimulate consumption. If however, the government sold bonds to the public to replace the revenue lost by the tax cut, the same crowding out process would foow, as in the case of a bond financedincreasein government spending. The quilibrium interest rate would rise, investment would fall,and there would al,so be an interest rate induced rise in saving (S), meaning that consumption would fall back toward the pre tax cut level. In the case of tax cut , as with an increase in spending, aggregate demand would not be affected.

If revenue lost because of the tax cut were replaced by printing new money, then as with an increase in government spending money creation would increase AD and the tax cutwoud cause the price leve to rise. Increase in money supply that affected the price eve.

Supply side
A reduction in the marginal tax rate increases the real wage (W/P. The labor supply (NS) curve shifts to the right from NS0 to NS1. . Equilibrium moves from point E to F. Employment and output increase, moving from E to F on the production function. This increases in output is represented by the shifts to the right in the vertical agreagate supply curve in c.

In the classical model, such a change would have an incentive effect on labor supply (NS). The change would effect the supply side and affect the output and employment.

Labor market increase labor supply, at any value of real wage (W/P) and shift the labor supply to the right from NS0 to NS1. Equilibrium employment increase from NOto N1. Increase in employment will increase in labor supply and also increase in output.