Licsun WongYoung 220 January 2018Chapter 19 Questions Before the industrialization, most large cities focused on commerce, creating more factories in the rural area, railroads lacked quite a bit and had seaports. But during industrialization, there were much manufacturing and the economy boomed quickly. The physical environment changes in cities during the late 19th century was transportation, more skyscrapers, more efficient usage of electricity, and suburbs were merged. People used cable cars and trolleys to go around the city in the late 1800s but led to a lot of traffic, so subways were created and helped expand railroads. The suburban was emerged by the wealthy businessman who built themselves fancy houses to isolate themselves from the pollution in manufacturing cities. Skyscrapers started to become more popular when steel was invented and elevators were more efficient. Skyscrapers allowed landowners to earn big bucks from selling a small piece of land. Innovation in technology created electric arc lamps that brightened the city streets Some patterns of the settlement were that immigrants contributed to the growing population, different ethnic groups established certain neighborhoods and cities, and departments were sorted by ethnicity. After the 1880s, there was an influx of southern Italian occurred because of the higher wages in America. The neighborhoods were based on ethnicity because of discrimination around the city and people found comfort when they were with people sharing their own culture. Some neighborhoods include Chinatown, Jewish Hayes Valley and Italian North Beach (San Francisco). Along with the race-based neighborhoods were districts, where they were divided based on class. (Immigrants were valued much). 90% of African American lived in the South, but at the turn of the century, increasingly sought new economic opportunity in the city. African Americans made up more than half the population like in Jacksonville and Montgomery but only make a 2 percent of the population in New York City. Africans dealt with even worse conditions that immigrant workers because they were turned away from many manufacturing jobs. Then there was the Atlanta Race Riot, where blacks were hated on by newspapers and excluded from white communities. The riot led to 24 deaths and around 100 deaths. The places people lived in was horrible, so the government attempted to reform by imposing a Tenement House Law. Most reforms was unsuccessful as industrial workers had to live in the city with limited space. The working class was depressed because industrial jobs were systematic and boring, laborers were working long hours, and granted very few rights. So, as a way to solve the depressing working environment, they turned to new working class environments like vaudeville, nickelodeons, amusement parks, and ragtime. Vaudeville was some made up shows that ranged from talking about beer bull variety to family-friendly entertainment. In the shows, it included acrobatics, magicians, comedians, and etc. Martin Beck’s Orpheum Circuit was a chain theatre. Nickelodeons were named for its price (nickel) and greek style of theater and evolved motion picture. Types of films included scenics, actualities, song and dance, comedies, melodramas, and sports. Ragtime was a musical style based on a “ragged” rhythm, where it heads steady beats in the base and off-beat rhythm in the treble. The musical based entertainment originated in Southern African American Communities and brought people’s attention (on the African American performers). Ernest Hogan was the first ragtime composers. The third amusement element were amusement parks, where it was popular amongst youth because it allowed youths to hang out with each other without their parent’s supervision. Also, the amusement parks were called trolley parks, used advanced mechanical engineering knowledge. A famous example of a popular amusement park in Coney Island. Single men were less encouraged to marry and praised for being bachelors. Many young women left their families in search of jobs and better opportunities. Young women and men traveled to public locations to find partners. Many relationships were based on money and rewards (maybe clothes and jewelry?). And there were more and more homosexual relationships. Since working-class women earned much less than working men, so women decided to date men to receive money and treat and were classified as charity girls. But many tried to maintain a pristine reputation and meet the standards of respectability, so they didn’t randomly date men. The rise of cities allowed for the flourishing of cultural institution included the establishment of symphonies, operas, museums, and libraries. And the elites built many cultural institutes that created the patrons of arts. Symphony orchestra emerged in Boston and New York the late 1800s. Metropolitan Opera in the New York City became more popular and had some performed works by Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss. The operas attracted large crowds because the operas provided musically innovative works. Then museums and libraries were added to the “high culture”. For example, the Corcoran Gallery of Art was the first major art museum opened in D.C. in 1869 and New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1880. Public libraries arose from small personal collections, like how Andrew Carnegie bulked up on books. In response, some artist started to criticize the high culture as older cultural norms were imposed again, like Folk music. Some people considered folk music as it represented the undaunted tenacity of spirit. The role of journalism brought some good, bad, and ugly changes. The good examples of good journalism include Helen Campbell’s The Prisoner of Poverty, where it reported the tenement conditions and Campbell advocated for more laboring women rights and better living conditions. And How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis really reflected the harsh condition of the people and influenced Theodore Roosevelt to investigate the darker side of the city. Some bad influenced was yellow journalism, a derogatory term used to describe the mass production of cheap journalism about murders, scandals, and certain stories to attract readers. An example of bad journalism was the Yellow Kid from Sunday Color Comics that started the new trend of bubble writing. An example of ugly changes was Pulitzer and Hearst, where it used false information to influence the Spanish American war, like false reporting the USS Maine scandal. A cause of the change was Hearst and the New York Journal competing for the Pulitzer and the New York World prize. Urban Political Machines were some political organization controlled by a few bosses and gave favors to supporters but were really corrupt. Many of the machines were scattered around the city to make it slightly more convenient. Some of the limitations on political machines was mass corruption, neglect of blacks, and manipulation of elections. For example, when the Muckrakers were exposed to industrial corruption for terrible, it caused the lower class workers to suffer. As for achievements, the political machines increased the employment rate, built functioning city services, and addressed the public health situation. City Reformers attempted to reclaim popular support and control of the cities form urban political machines by generating the city reform movement, getting the effort of reform-minded mayors, and establishing the commission and management system. The City reform movement started when the middle class saw the corruption in political machines. In the 1890s, when he economic depression struck the nation, it led to the dramatic shift to the Populist Party from being a supporter of political machines. In response, Democrats and Republicans demanded a reform by voting for a reform-minded mayor. Reform-minded mayors were ones that looked to form new public services and areas, willing to go against private business upon fares to regain political control, and sometimes modeled the European city government structure. Some of the more well-known reform-minded mayors include Tom Johnson, Hazen Pingree, and Josiah Quincy. Tom Johnson, who wanted to tax the rich and monopolies, was nominated by the Democratic Party in 1901 in Cleveland. The Commision and Manager System started after the devastating hurricane in Galveston, Texas, because people didn’t trust the city council with their money. So, governors appointed a small commission to govern as they try to rebuild the city. The commissions were viewed as undemocratic. In the early 1900s, around 500 cities adopted to the commission and manager plan because it some believed that it was a business came to take influence away from working class. While the cities became a place for cultural mixing, it became areas of poverty, disease, and violence, due to the lack of sanitation and overcrowding from the second wave of industrialization. Since the population became more and denser, it made the water unclean and spread waterborne diseases around the city. A way to solve was overhauling the sewage and drainage system, which cut the rates of cholera and typhoid fever and lowered the infant mortality rate. Children living in slums had to breath polluted air from the ghastly factories and risked their lives of getting food poisoning to survive. So urban reformers demanded the establishment of a better garbage and water collection system and promoted healthy habits to reduce the spread of disease. When the civil war ended, governments didn’t regulate drugs and food, so it was dangerous of the public. As a way to solve the problem, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and formed the Food and Drug Administration to enforce the guidelines. Away from the industrial regions were a more pristine place, known as the “City Beautiful Movement”, which arose in the early 20-century and aimed at forming better parks. Since sanitation and congestion affected both rich and poor, both of the classes supported the movement. Women were displaced from manual jobs because of the industrialization wave. And many women were domestically abused and stuck in low paying jobs which made women find quick money, which was prostitution. Initial Reactions by the public was creating Female Reform Groups, Temperance Unions, and directed they’re protested more on liquor than prostitution. (shut down red light districts). Other campaigns include a reform group that began perceiving prostitution as one of the horrors and calling it white slavery. As a way to support the campaigns, the Congress passed the White-Slave Traffic Act in 1910 to make commercial interstate transportation of women for the purpose of “prostitution or debauchery, or any other immoral purpose” a felony. The settlement houses was a reformist social movement that began in the 1880s in both Britain and the United States, with an aim of making the upper and lower class people live more closely together in an interdependent community. The main objective was in hope of sharing knowledge and culture and alleviate the poverty of low-income neighbors. The settlement houses provided services like education, healthcare, and daycare, which improved the lives of the poor in those areas. The Hull House in Chicago was a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded by Ellen Starr and Jane Addams in 1889. The settlement house was built near the west side of Chicago to open its doors to European immigrants and by 1911, the Hull House expanded to a total of thirteen buildings.The Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in 1911 was one of the worst industrial disasters in New York City. The fire took a death toll of 146 workers (123 women and 23 men), the workers most likely have died of smoke inhalation or falling to their deaths. Most of the deaths were Italian and Jewish immigrant women who were aged between sixteen and twenty-three. The political aftermath of the fire demonstrated how challenges posed by industrial cities pushed politics in different directions, like transforming the government into helping the establishment of broader movements for reform. Also, to build the nation into a global industrial power. During the process, the government formed an electorate and community that was significantly more racially and religiously diverse than its previous years. And, from the tragedy, it led to the development of a list of laws and regulations that improved and protected the safety of laborers.