can be concluded that yogurt is a dairy product that has been fermented by certain bacteria that has a
specific taste. Yogurt is classified into
several categories, such as based on the viscosity, the fat content, the making
process, the flavour, and the processes performed on post-incubation yogurt. The classification can be a reference
for yogurt lovers to consider which yogurt is suitable
to consume for them.
Based on the post-incubation process, yogurt is
divided into four types: pasteurisation
yogurt, frozen yogurt, dietic yogurt, and concentrated
yogurt is a yogurt that undergoes pasteurisation
after going through the incubation stage. Frozen yogurt is a yogurt stored at
freezing temperatures. Dietic yogurt is a yogurt
which is made with low-calorie, low-lactose, or vitamins and protein.
Concentrated yogurt is a yogurt that has total
solids of 24% or dried yogurt with
total solids of 90-94% (Rahman et al., 1992).
According to Rahman et al (1992) based on the flavour,
divided into two types, namely plain yogurt
and flavoured yogurt. Plain yogurt is a yogurt with a natural taste that is not added any flavours,
while flavoured yogurt is the yogurt which added to any flavours. The
flavours addition is usually done by adding
fruits in a preserved form such as canned fruit, dried fruit or puree.
Based on the making process, yogurt is divided into two
types, namely set yogurt and stirred yogurt (Tamime, 1980). The set yogurt is incubated into small packs which are
ready to sell so that the gel or coagulum
formed comes from the starter culture activity itself. Then the stirred yogurt is the fermented yogurt into a large container
which is then mixed so that the coagulum
is broken and can be flowed into small
packs. The gel or coagulum formed into small packs
is not the result of starter culture activity, but it is due to the addition of
stabilisers such as gelatin (Hefelrich
and Westhoff, 1980).
Based on the viscosity,
yogurt is divided into two, drink yogurt that is more dilute, and pudding yogurt
which is thick like pudding. Then
yogurt can also be classified based on its fat content, BSN (2009) divides
yogurt into three types: yogurt with a fat content of more than 3.0%, low-fat
yogurt with a fat content of 0.6 – 2.9%, and nonfat yogurt with a fat content
of less than 0.5% (Helferich dan Westhoff, 1980).
Yogurt comes from the Turkish language, “jugurt” which means a sour milk. According
to BSN (2009), yogurt is a product
obtained from the fermentation of milk and/or reconstituted milk using the Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteria, and Streptococcus
thermophillus and or other suitable
lactic acid bacteria, with or without the addition of other permitted foods additives. There are two primary purposes of making fermented milk. The
first one is to extend the shelf-life of
milk compared to its friable product which is
easily damaged. The second purpose
is to increase the variety of food because during
the process of fermentation it changes the colour,
flavour, body, and nutritional properties
of the raw material of origin. Yogurt is classified
into several categories, such as based on the viscosity, the fat content, the
making process, flavour, and the
processes performed on post-incubation yogurt
(Rahman et al., 1992).
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