Introduction to remove bran (pericarp) & germ, particularly to

Introduction to Cereal

grains are the basic component of human diet for thousands of years and have
played a major role in developing human customs. Wheat, maize, and rice, and to
a lesser extent, sorghum and millets, are important staple cereal crops around
the world. From the consumption of cereal grain more than 50% of world daily caloric
intake is directly obtained. The cereal grains used for human food are milled
to remove bran (pericarp) & germ, particularly to meet the expectations of
consumers. As compared to developed countries the developing countries depend
more on cereal grains for nutritional purposes. Cereal grains are considered as
the most important and single source of calories to the majority of world
natives. More than 80% calories in poor countries & close to 60% of
calories in developing countries are directly derived from cereals. In
developed areas approximately 30% of calories derived directly from cereals.
However, in the richest countries that do not consume cereals directly, the
grains remain the most important food material, since they provide most of the
nutrients for the animals that form a major part of food in these areas. Among
various factors, there are three most important factors on which type of grains
produced depend around the world. These are environmental, cultural, and
economic factors. The most critical environmental factors that probably determine
the crops grown in a specific region are temperature and the water
availability. The regions where water is available in excess, rice is dominant
crop & also to some extent maize. Rice is often grown under flooding conditions,
therefore most sensitive to water deficiency. For the production of rice in
most regions, enough rainfall or accessible fresh water must be available. (Awika et al, 2011)

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Major Cereal Crops:

1.   Rice (Oryza sativa)

2.   Wheat, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

3.   Durum wheat, macaroni wheat (Triticum durum)

4.   Corn or maize (Zea mays)

5.   Job’s Tears, salay, adlay, tigbe,
pawas (Coix lachryma-jobi)

6.   Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

7.   Millet ( Pennisetum glaucum)

8.   Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

9.   Oat (Avena sativa)

(Secale cereale)


taf (Eragrostis tef)

(Digitaria exilis)

rice, Canada rice, Indian rice, water oats (Zizania

(Triticum spelta)

grass (Phalaris sp.) (Ben G. Bareja, 2015)


Cereal Crop Production

The initial
incentive to improved productivity is an indicator to the development of hybrid
varieties whereas the more recent approach is basically the result of
advancements in crop production technologies. The development of hybrid
varieties are broadly documented, but only recently that wide range of reports
has been published on the modern methods of crop production. (ALDRICH, S. R, LENG, E. R, 1965)

With respect
to pesticides and fertilizers Green
revolution technique uses high energy of crop production technologies.
There are several problems reported related to the pests with green revolution
crops. The problems can be more critical when there is energy crisis in the
world. A careful judgement should be created of the advantages, prices, and
dangers of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be sure
that this program will not increase the serious world food situation. (David Pimentel, L. E. Hurd, A. C.
Bellotti, M. J. Forster, I. N. Oka, O. D. Sholes, R. J. Whitman, 1973)

It is clear
that every method of production, from seedbed preparation to harvesting and
storage of the crop as silage or grain, is the subject of serious study from
recent years. However minimum cultivation techniques are useful for many areas
in the Corn Belt and trusted to become increasingly popular. Recent research
data has justified the commercial bent towards narrow drill rows, early sowing and
high plant populations. (ALDRICH,
S. R, LENG, E. R, 1965)


Rice, the
most important source of gaining calories for humans, is basically grown for
humans to consume it directly and also used with other grains. Rice contributes
approximately 21% of world per capita caloric intake, and 27% of per capita
calories in the developing countries.


Barley is a significant food source
for humans and used as a crop for animal feed. It comes on fourth number in the
area of farming of cereal crop in the world. The vital role of barley is that,
it is used as a material which is used for manufacturing of malt and beer. The
process of malting involve the germination of barley in a controlled condition
in which hydrolytic enzymes are produced which digest the starch of the
endosperm, protein and cell walls, which makes the grain easily crumbled.(Bamforth and Barclay, 1993).



Introduction to Malt

Malting is
restricted germination of cereal grains.Occasionally malt is used after drying
in a warm air or by sun drying. It is used to prepare food and drinks in all
over the world. In industrialized countries usually malt is prepared by barley
but it can also be made by different varieties of millet, wheat, maize, oat
rye, triticale and even the rice.

The word
malt is derived from the word “melt”
as during the process of germination it 
becomes soft, or may be the word “malled”(broken)
because in the processing of brewing malt are milled. (D.E. Briggs, 1998)


Protein in Barley and Malt

The barley consists of number of protein. The fully ripened grain of
barley contains a wide range of protein that versatile in structure, location,
role and other chemical and visible qualities. The seed tissues of barley have
large number of dissolve protein contents and a clear entire complement of a
protein. The three tissues
of the barley seed which are the main tissues are the embryo, aleurone layer, and
endosperm .the amount of protein in barley is an important factor to identify
the attributes of malting, which is affected by the fertility of soil,
fertilizer application, rotation of crop and climate conditions.( Finnie C and Svensson B ,2003)

The quality of barley seed is
determined by the presence of protein. In the process of malting, the enzyme
proteinases breakdown the barley storage protein into amino acid and peptides. (Kunze W, 2007, Narzi L, 2005, Jones BL et al 2000).

The most important factor for the
composition of protein is to estimate the level of protein in malting and which
can be measured by conventionally metod, the Kolbach index (soluble nitrogen/total
nitrogen*100) .( Evans DE,1998, Iimure T  ,2008)