Industrial Britain also had a stable polity unlike Europe.

Industrial Revolution was first heralded in Britain in 1750s. Continental European countriescould not adopt Industrial Revolution as early as Britain because Europe faced politicalinstability. French Revolution and Napoleonic wars kept the Europe engaged. Belgium was firstto follow British footsteps. Germany also has its ‘Ruhr’ are Industrialized. Soon other Europeannations followed suit. There were many conducive factors. Britain had adequate capital which was accumulatedthrough colonialism. Disappearance of serfdom and ‘enclosure movement’ provided hugesurplus agricultural labor which looked for employment and became source of cheap labor. (AsIndustrialization started, land became valuable commodity. Big landlords started snatching theland of small farmers and this was termed as ‘enclosure movement’). Britain was also rich withnatural resources. Iron and coal proved twin pillars of Industrial Revolution and Britain was luckyto have them in close proximity. Britain also had a stable polity unlike Europe. It also had astrong navy – a symbol of military might. Inventions, capitalist ideology and communicationwere other factors.Salient Features of Industrial RevolutionFirst feature is that, Britain was the epicenter of this revolution in 1750.Secondly, it started from textile sector. Britain used to spent huge wealth on import of foreignclothes like Dhaka Muslin, Calicut Calico and so on leading to huge forex drain. So, textileindustries became a natural choice to start with.It was also a revolution in infrastructure which was necessary for spread of it. Railways, steamboats (reduced dependence on wind sails with heavier load), Macadamized roads (pucca roadsnamed after its inventor Macadam), new form of communication like telegraph and penny post(now it was possible to send post in a mere penny) etc lead to new globalization.It gave birth to ideology of mercantilism which viewed world resources as limited and merchantsvied for each other in a ‘zero-sum game’.A process of new globalization started in which colonies were integrated in a highly subservientmanner.It also affected agriculture. Cropping patterns were changed. Staple food crops were replacedwith cash crops like cotton, indigo, tea, opium etc.Impact of Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution also had certain other fallouts which were not expected. There was alsoopposition to these new developments. Luddite movement was such an even which was amovement launched by workers who attacked machines as they feared that machines willreplace manpower. This and other movements forced Industrialists to give a seriousconsideration to worker’s condition.I. Social Impact – new urban centers (like Manchester, Leeds), slums, nuclear family,urbanization, exploitation of women and children, new class formationII. Economic Impact – birth of capitalism, transnational trade, cheap goods, ruin ofhandicraftsIII. Political Impact – colonialism gets a new fillip, new division of countries as developed and und-developed, Europeanization of different parts of world, reforms movement likeChartist Movement started. Unions also began to form. New movements like –Socialism, Marxism also trace their roots to Industrial Revolution. Child labor laws wereformed as exploitation of children increased.