In Violence Reduction Unit in Glasgow also confirmed this.

In conclusion, poverty is not the only influence on
crime. The factors studied in this aim all have strong links to both victimisation and offending. With
gender, there is the clear link with the victimisation rates of boys in the 16-24 age group
being twice as likely to be a victim of violent crime. The link between biology
and crime has also been proven with the adoption studies and the XYY gene.
Finally, ethnicity also impacts crime with the younger population being
pinpointed as a reason for increased victimisation and imprisonment rates. Whilst all of
these factors are important and play a huge part in crime, poverty is still the
biggest single contributing factor.


Their report states that Afro-Caribbean, Indian and Pakistani groups are
more likely to be a victim of various crimes including theft (vehicle and
household). An interview with Will Linden from the Violence Reduction Unit in Glasgow also confirmed
this. In the interview, he said that the reason for a higher number of
victimisation and perpetration may be influenced by their young population.
This links into the peak age of offending being 14 for girls and 18 for boys (Interview
with Will Linden). It was also noted that within the Glasgow area, the crimes
are not racially motivated. Instead it is simply the case of being in the wrong
place at the wrong time. ). minorities are more likely to be victims of crimes and serious
threats than whites. The main reasons for this are their age structure, their
socio-economic characteristics and the type of area they live in.’ ( rates for ethnic minorities are also higher than the
national average. A Home Office Report by Marian FitzGerald and Chris Hale
found that ‘Victimisation

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Furthermore, there is a link between ethnicity and crime.
According to an Open University publication, black ethnic groups made up 2.8%
of the general UK population and 15.8% of the prison population in 2005
(Understanding Race and Crime, Colin Webster). The percentage of arrests and
cautions were also above the percentage of the population whereas for whites
they were lower than the population percentage. The Asian ethnic group was also
over represented in prison with 5.4% compared to making up 4.7% of the


sociologists have also conducted twin and adoption studies. This includes
Mednick in the Netherlands.
In adoption studies, they have found that an adoptee whose biological parents
have a criminal conviction and have spent time in prison and adoptive parents
with no convictions are more likely to follow their biological parents into
crime. This has been the case even if they have been brought up away from any
criminal influences. The link was found to be at its strongest between father
and son. Criminal adoptive parents were also looked at. If a child with
biological parents with no criminal convictions was brought up with criminal
adoptive parents they are not very likely to go on to commit crimes themselves.
This clearly shows that there is a link between biology and criminal




Biology also plays a part with regards to crime. Studies
carried out on male prisoners have found that a large proportion have the
abnormal XYY gene. This gene has been linked by Jacobs (1965) to having violent
tendencies compared to those with the normal XY gene. The study found that 15
per 1,000 male prisoners had this gene compared to only 1 per 1,000 males in
the general population. The gene was linked to behavioral problems and learning
difficulties and those with the gene tend to be more aggressive than others
with normal chromosomes.


with men being worse off than women. Although this is the case, 39% of women
say that the fear of crime affects their quality of life and 90% of young women
take some ‘form of avoidance’ when going out. This avoidance varied from
avoiding certain streets or in some cases carrying a weapon (Investigating
Crime and Deviance – Stephen Moore). Again, this links to the stereotype of
women having too many responsibilities and not having time to go out therefore
the chance of becoming a victim is significantly less than that of a man. victimisation). This shows that gender
plays a role in According to national
statistics, around 5% of men and fewer than 3% of women over the age of 16 were
victims of crime in the year prior to a survey conducted by the government in
2002/3. In the age 16-24 age group, the gap is much larger with 15% of males
being a victim of violent crime in comparison to 7% of females ( victimisationIt
is also apparent that gender plays a role in




is also the quotation from Gottfredson and Hirschi who said: ‘Men are always
and everywhere more likely than women to commit criminal acts.'(Gottfredson and
Hirschi – 1990: 145). Stereotypically, women are seen as the primary care-giver
in the household and have many responsibilities which take up their time
whereas men are out working. This gives women a smaller opportunity to commit
crime in comparison to men. With prison statistics from 2001 showing that 81%
of known offenders are male, it is clear that men do commit more offences than




have been various studies on the link between gender and crime. Marsh noted
that ‘In areas where women have similar opportunities to men, they appear to
break less laws'(Sociology in Focus: Crime 1986). Sociologists have linked this
to the view that ‘female behaviour
is more closely watched and strictly controlled within the
family.'(Abbot and Wallace- An Introduction To Sociology: Feminist Perspectives).
There is evidence to support these links. Buckle and Farrington conducted an
observational study in 1984 and they found that twice as many men shoplift
compared to women(American Pyschological Association, (2.8% of
men compared to 1.4% of women). However, this differs from statistics the
Crisis Counseling for Alleged Shoplifters (CCAS) released in March 2008 who
stated that 14,389 girls aged 12-20 were cautioned for shoplifting compared to
11,542 boys(The Dailey Express, Camilla Tominey, ‘Middle Class Girls
Shoplifting’). Whilst the Buckle and Farrington study supports the Abbot and
Wallace quotation, the CCAS statistics do not. Instead they seem to support the
view that women are just as likely to commit this type of crime as men.


are many components that are believed to effect and influence crime. As well as
poverty, study’s have found that gender, biology and ethnicity are to the
likelihood of committing crime and being a victim of crime.