In is an underlying theme of the horrors and

In both Wilfred Owen’s poem “Dulce et Decorum Est” and Carol Ann Duffy’s poem “War Photographer” there is an underlying theme of the horrors and tragedies of war and human suffering. The poem “War Photographer” describes a scene of mines on a battlefield, “exploding beneath the feet of running children” however “Dulce et Decorum Est” primarily depicts a gas attack on soldiers in the trenches. War Photographer addresses the innocent children affected by war, fleeing the hellish nightmare of home, who had the misfortune of being trapped on a battlefield and the effect this horrific imagery had on the photographer’s conscience. The organised and structured layout of War Photographer, 4 regular six-line stanzas, juxtaposes the chaotic nature of war. War Photographer depicts the image of children fleeing in the midst of battle and uses the image of children to invoke emotion and empathy in the reader. The war photographer ‘staring impassively’ from an aeroplane is a metaphor that could show how emotionally distant he is from the people he photographs. The metaphor could also extend to the readers of the publications where the photographer’s images appear – they too gaze at the pictures with indifference. The irony of the social injustice of the job of a war photographer is the fact that they make money by exploiting struggling people in bleak situations. The aeroplane could also represent an escape from suffering to those in his pictures but for him it is a means of transport, physically moving him from location to location, however emotionally he could be seen as still being with those in his pictures. For the war photographer’s conscience it is easier to consider what he does as a ‘job to do’ in order for him to survive rather than the reality of the situation. At the moment of capture, his hands ‘did not tremble’ because he would otherwise not be taking clear photos, however, upon reflection when he gets home his hands ‘seem to tremble now’, suggesting he has time to comprehend the traumatic events he has witnessed. At the time, he had a job to do so he could not be emotionally attached however he has now comprehended the reality of the place he visited and he could be seen as having a form of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).”Dulce et Decorum Est” addresses the waste of barely legal young men’s lives who were lured into war. Owen disagreed with the attitude his home country had, where soldiers serving their country were seen as glamourous and he criticises the enthusiasm that was used to persuade men to fight in the war. The poem was written during World War 1 when a lot of propaganda was used as a means of recruiting men to fight for their country and Owen rejected this idea, as in his eyes they were wasting a great deal of young lives. Given that Owen was a soldier in the trenches, suggesting he was not rich nor educated given his low rank, he had first-hand experiences of the events that soldiers in trenches endured. Therefore, Dulce et Decorum Est could be seen as anti-propaganda, disputing the propaganda used to lure men into brutal scenarios. The poem is written in rhyming couplets, perhaps to convey the repetition of the tragedies of war and reiterate his point. The use of rhyming couplets can make the poem sound smoother when reading it and therefore speed up the pace, which intensifies all the graphic images Owen describes. At the same time the poem could be seen as disjointed and fractured as structurally Owen uses a lot of commas in his sentences, breaking them up into smaller segments of detail. The unstructured, broken up feel that commas give to the poem could be reminiscent of how unstructured war is and how broken the people involved become. Owen uses many similes towards the end of the poem to further illustrate the image of how vile human destruction can be. Both Owen and Duffy are disagreeing with aspects of war however they talk about them very differently. Owen contradicts the common idea that serving your country is glamourous and an honour; he feels that it is a colossal waste of young lives. Duffy addresses those struggling to survive in countries struck with war and famine, and the way media companies profit off the back of them.Both Woke Soyinka’s poem “Telephone Conversation” and U. A. Fanthorpe’s poem “You will be hearing from us shortly” explore themes of prejudice. “You will be hearing from us shortly” focuses on gender prejudice whereas “Telephone Conversation” focuses on colour prejudice. Woke Soyinka uses a number of language techniques to convey the extremes of colour prejudice in “Telephone Conversation” however the most prominent technique used is her choice of diction when describing colour. Capitalised sentences are used to convey more emphasis on certain words in the conversation and could be seen as where more strain and gravitas was used in speech. Hyperboles are used to describe the skin colour of the man over-exaggerating his colours, his “bleached white” hands and providing a greater contrast between the colours mentioned during the conversation. It could also be seen as creating a greater difference between people of colour and people not, once again falsly emphasising how different they are.The reader is given very minimal insight into the specific appearance of the lady but rather a generic older woman implying that the man has experienced this type of prejudice many times before. She is described to have a ‘long gold rolled Cigarette-holder pipped’, which has a pretentious quality to it. The irony of Soyinka’s poem is that both people in the conversation are judging one another even though they cannot see each other and although the landlady is likely educated, her perception of coloured people proves her to be ignorant. The poem only contains one long stanza because of the conversational tone. Throughout the conversation the dynamic of power seems to shift; at the start more truncated sentences are used and the pace seems slow while the lady is questioning the African man about his colour. However, as you move through the poem the man on the phone starts to become less patient and more worked up; the sentences start to become longer but more broken up, showing the thought process of the man, and the overall pace increases, showing the franticness and temper in the African man. The use of colour is very prominent in the poem, as it is not only used to show contrast between characters but also to show emotions. As the man’s temper starts to rise there is description of ‘red booths’ and ‘red pillar-boxes’. The repetition of red connotes danger and warning perhaps indicating that he was about to get into a dangerous situation, however red also connotes fury and could be seen as a representation of his anger and fury rising. The use of red imagery associates with a person turning red with anger and could give the reader almost a cartoon image of a person’s head sprouting with smoke and fire. The 3 red images are also iconic staples of England and English society.The poem “You will be hearing from us shortly” is written by female activist U. A. Fanthorpe. The premise of the poem focuses on social injustice and prejudice and depicts a woman undergoing a job interview. The tone of the poem is that of a question and answer between an interviewer and a job applicant however it is clear and frustrating that the interviewer is constantly trying to dismiss the job applicant and focuses on the most negative aspects of her. The poem consists of 6 regular stanzas, varying in length however the theme of each stanza is simple; the interviewer picks and criticizes one aspect of the job applicant. As the poem progresses the poem becomes increasingly prejudiced against the job applicant, first starting on her maturity and age but then moving onto her accent and finally her gender. As the prejudice the interviewer shows starts to escalate, it is clear he is gradually gaining more power over her in the conversation. The most prominent literary device used in Farthorpe’s poem is rhetorical questions; the interviewer uses 12 rhetorical questions within the 6 stanzas. The interviewer asks the questions in such a way that it is figuratively impossible to respond to them as they are intended to have an answer, but rather to demean the job applicant. Ironically, it could be seen as the tone of this poem is not a conversation, but instead her being held verbally hostage with her only choices are to: say nothing or agree with him, implying she is inferior to him and he holds all the power over her.