I love watching animated science fiction movies. This assignment gave me a chance to study in-depth of the movie-making art, graphics, design and technology used for filming such movies. I was very much fascinated by the ‘Jurassic Park (1993)’ movie and its sequels that were released – ‘The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)’, ‘Jurassic Park III (2001)’, and ‘Jurassic World (2015)’. Another sequel, ‘Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom’ is coming in 2018.Introduction to Jurassic ParkJurassic park is an America Sci-Fi movie based on a theme park created by rich men and visionary people. This theme park was created on an isolated island and was inhabited by genetically engineered dinosaurs who escape their confinement and rampage on the human characters. This movie brought a revolution in graphics and design industry. It took nearly 65 years in its creation.Logo and Corporate BrandingThe brilliance of graphic design lies in the perfect corporate branding of Jurassic theme park and making it believable. Jurassic Park Logo Reference: 15The logo of Jurassic park was created by Sandy Collora and Tom Martin. It showed a Tyrannosaurus skeleton contained in a yellow circle and towering above a jungle silhouette and a black bar with words “Jurassic Park”. This logo had such a strong impact on the viewers that it was used as merchandise over the years.It was the only movie in the series which used the logo in the film. The design of Jurassic park was very simple emphasizing mainly on bold colours. The skeletal iconography was also used on stone obelisks outside every dinosaur padlock in the movie. They used most lurid, artificial colours possible that you wouldn’t find in the natural world. One can see eye popping colours in the entire movie on cars, toys, t-shirts or ID Cards. This took the viewers into fake external imagery that makes the jungle and animals look real. The animals looked more real in containment. Changes in logo Reference: 15The logo underwent minor changes in every sequel. In Jurassic park 2- The Lost World, it appeared as if the logo was carved on a stone or on cracked wood to give it a primitive look. The bar stated The Lost world with subtitle Jurassic Park. Due to more letters and spacing required in the bar, the yellow circle was no longer a perfect circle but it can hardly be noticed. In Jurassic park 3, T.rex skeleton was replaced by Spinosaurus skeleton. Claw marks were added to the end representing III and the black and yellow colours of the circle and bar was replaced with metal. Silver Pteranodons could be seen flying in the entire movie. In Jurassic World, The background colour was changed to blue and the title was written in silvery white colour instead of red. The skeleton was again changed to the T.Rex and the logo was dimly lit. This was done to give an impression that the logo was carved on a metal or stone. In Jurassic Park: The Fallen Kingdom (which is set to be released in 2018), The logo is noticeably cracked to a severe extent to give an impression of destruction and ruin. The Bar contains the Jurassic world as main title and the fallen kingdom as Subtitle. Surrounding the logo is fire ember suggesting some volcanic activity giving the logo an apocalyptic look. 15Each and every logo depicted a story in itself. Every object and the colour had significance in the logo. Visual effectsBefore production of Jurassic Park (1993)Many movies came into being related to dinosaurs before the production of Jurassic park. Before 1990s, most visual effects were given by slow motions and people in suits. Dinosaurs were brought to life on screen by magnifying lizards. Puppets and men in rubber suits were also used in replacement of dinosaurs. But the most successful means was slow motion animation in which miniature dinosaurs were created and filmed frame by frame, carefully adjusting their positions. Animators could use the illusion of flawless motion in the movie. Jurassic Park (1993)The visual effects in Jurassic park created revolution in movie making by filming unrealistic things. They made ample use of drawings to implement the design in robotics by creating life sized remote controlled robots that moves underneath latex skin, giving it a realistic motion. This movie used computer generated imagery (CGI) along with live action.Computer graphic imagery is a computer graphical application. CGI is a typical hand-drawn animation or stop motion, which consists of a series of drawings or photographs to create the illusion of movement. It is mainly used for 3d models, computer aided design, graphic design, video games, visual effects, visualization, virtual energy, virtual engineering, virtual reality, virtual cinematography. “Go-motion”, a variation of this technique developed at George Lucas’ Industrial Light & Magic (ILM), used tiny computer-driven motors to control the movements of these miniature models. Computer graphics eliminated the limitations of the using miniature models. CG images for Jurassic Park were actually accomplished in two ways. One method was to copy the small models by lasers built by the film’s conceptual artist, as a blueprint. Their exact proportions would therefore be stored onto a computer. After completing the fully animated skeletons, layers of colouring were applied to represent skins and muscles. Other method was to draw designs and prosthetics of the different dinosaurs. The production used computer graphics for creating dinosaurs. They scanned models into the computers by firing a laser at the three-dimensional rubber prosthetic model and extract the data. It was similar to 3D printing; taking an object and turning it into data. They then reconstruct the data to make it work in the computer. An animation piece of software called Soft Image 3D was used to figure out the joint placement on the dinosaurs. After that, the data has to be “rigged” with a digital armature in wireframes. This is the framework for the dinosaur that helps provide its structure allowing it to stand up, move, and run. Next, the dinosaurs get their skin. They used a program called Viewpaint, which allowed them to actually paint the texture of the skin in the computer. To put all of the separate images together, they needed to be rendered by massive graphics computers. Finally, the dinosaur needs to be put into a scene through a process called compositing. This is where all the pieces to the puzzle are assembled together. CGI shots are combined together with live-action shots and any background and foreground imagery referred to as plate photography. Another way of producing computer generated animation was to incorporate the work of a trained model animator. Another interesting fact about the Jurassic Park was artists had to get into character to create realistic dinosaurs. The digital artists took video of themselves acting like the ‘Gallimimus’ herd for reference before they animated the stampede scene; it helped them create more realistic instinctive behaviour. Jurassic park was perfect blend of direction and design by Spielberg and Rick Carter.Jurassic World (2015)The computer graphics and animation improved tremendously after the first Jurassic park movie. The initial plan was to use both the techniques; Stan Winstons’s animatronic behemoths along with Phil Tippett’s stop-motion models. But dinosaurs in the Jurassic World were mostly computer graphics, with just a few animatronic creatures. The biggest change in this film was that it used motion capture to create the performance of raptors. The huge raptor which were originally humans enacting as dinosaurs and their motion was captured in computer. The team even used a newly developed muscle firing system to fire and squeeze the muscles at the right points. For look, movement and behaviour of D-Rex, the team references various animals including rhino, elephants, hippopotamus and ostriches. A lot was changed in the industry of visual effects since the first film of the series was released. Since the background plates of the original generally consisted of static and non-moving shots with few moving camera shots. Spielberg wanted to shoot the lost world just like the way wild animals were shot by awildlife photographer, which meant that the background shows some random movement by camera capturing shots from every possible angle viz. through cranes, camera car shots, dollys, hand held shots.Sound effects Sound effects in the movie played a very important role. As no one has ever heard the voice of a dinosaur so it has to made by mixing different natural voices.The voice of T. Rex was a mixture of tiger, alligator, and baby elephant sounds. The voice of deadly Dilophosaurus was created by combining howler monkeys, hawk screeches, rattle snake hisses and the swan calls. Baby Raptor sounded like baby owls and baby foxes. 6In Jurassic World, they already had Jurassic park’s amazing work, they had some to experiment with the sound of all new “Indominus Rex”. The sound designers knew that they needed to make this dinosaur baddie sound distinct. The end result was a mixture of the old standbys for what you would think a dinosaur roar is made up of but with some higher pitches to make it stand out as something totally different than the T-Rex.