However, knowledge that includes both domains and manifestations of

However, in this completed study the red
arrows indicate the approach used in analysing the chosen teaching practises,
just as depicted in Mavhunga’s model. The video recorded lessons that depicted
some of the manifestations were first analysed using aspects of teacher
knowledge that includes both domains and manifestations of PCK, as depicted in
Mavhunga’s Model of PCK (in Mavhunga et al.2012). This was then followed by
analysing both the domains and manifestations together in an attempt to
construct an integrated knowledge of teaching which eventually articulated my




            12.4.3   Structural data analysis

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Video- recorded lessons were observed in
order to investigate my teaching practices. These observations are captured in
the observation table (Table 5) in an attempt to identify patterns connected
with the elements of PCK.


In constructing the observation table
elements of PCK that would be observable in practice were selected. These
elements included both domains as well as manifestations, e.i. The following patterns are identified
with the aid of the observation table (Table 5):(1)        The
video recordings contain a mix of conceptual (i.e., scientific concepts) and
contextual           (i.e., society,
values and attitudes) content. Conceptual content were predominant         throughout Topic 1 and Topic 2. Society
context appeared more frequently compared          to
learner’s attitudes towards electromagnetism within society. (2)        There
is a need to address student’s attitudes towards science, especially when
teaching electromagnetism in the future.
It is important for learners to obtain a realistic picture of          electromagnetism within society and
their personal lives. A large part of their personal environment consists out of electromagnetism, without them even
noticing it. Although     there were
instances where the teacher introduced the application(s) of electromagnets    and the process of electromagnetism within
society, attitudes and values in using these           applications
were not necessarily addressed. (3)        Skills
were addressed only a few times, emphasizing that the classroom rather than the
   lab dominated the context for teaching
the EMI process. (4)        The
observed alternation of conceptual and contextual knowledge content showed that            scientific
concepts regarding electromagnetism were, generally, not embedded in             personal, societal, or technological
contexts. (5)        Teaching
predominantly occurred by means of the instructional method, where a teacher-           centred approach was followed.
Student initiative hardly had any influence on the course   of instruction.                                                            (6)        Although
the teacher incorporated a variety of teaching strategies within the teaching        method (i.e. simulations, demonstrations,
practical, video, power point presentations, etc.)        students predominantly remained passive throughout the recorded
lessons. This          occurrence might be
as a result of the presence of 
video-recorder in the classroom.      However,
in an attempt to promote discussion, the teacher frequently asked the learners           questions about the content and
revised previous content. As a result some students         seemed eager to interact, but the teacher tends to shift to
lecturing.  (7)        Although
some interaction took place, the teacher formulated answers herself, instead of
            exploring student’s
understanding of electromagnetic concepts through means of a   discussion. Again, promoting passivity and
switching to lecture-mode. (8)        Student’s
learning activities were often regulated and initiated by the teacher. (9)        The
idea of conceptual check questions fits within the teacher’s constructivist
teaching     strategy and is explicitly
connected (by the teacher’s reasoning) with several aspects of    the perceived students’ preferences and
needs. In order to conclude, the observed
teaching practice can be classified as traditional science education around
conceptual knowledge in regards to physics theory. The classroom interactions
are found to be  dominated by the teacher
with little room for student input. Therefore, a constructivist style is
connected to a more traditional choice in the use of teaching elements.  The teacher, however, suggests that this
dominant teacher behaviour can be explained by :(1)        a
feeling that during classroom instruction the students were initially not as
responsive       and involved as was hoped
for due to the presence of a video-recorder. (2)        a
belief that since electromagnetism are introduced for the first time within the
science     curriculum, lessons have to be
more teacher-centred than learner-centred as learners             might have limited prior knowledge connected with electromagnetism.
It was also    believed that there are
quite a few abstract concepts that required a teacher-centred          approach. However, upon later
reflection, it is now believed that it could have been these      beliefs that promoted learner passivity.  (3)        A
response to stress due to the presence of the video-recorder, knowing that
these           lessons would be observed
and critiqued by her critical friends and did not want to be            observed as a teacher not displaying
enough content knowledge.                         12.4.4  Theoretical data analysis The five categories of manifestations
that emerged from the data are discussed, followed by the four domains.
Although all four domains of PCK emerged through the video-recordings, it seems
that two domains tend to be more prominent, i.e. subject matter knowledge and
knowledge of the students. The manifestations of PCK that emerged from the
video recordings included curricular saliency (manifestation 1); conceptual
teaching strategies (manifestation 2) and the use of instructional
representations and analogies (manifestation 3). Data analysis in terms of the four
domains: (i)         Subject matter knowledge Subject matter knowledge includes knowledge of concepts, laws, rules
and principles governing a particular subject matter and how this subject matter
is structured. (Rollnick, et al., 2008). The most important aspect of me learning the topic electromagnetism was
in discovering that it is more of a process, consisting of a series of events
ranging from magnetic effects up to producing an electric current. This whole
process became clear in the constructions of the mind map which had evolved
into three versions – a clear illustration of the expansion of my own knowledge
about the content of electromagnetism. (Appendix C). It was also throughout
this learning experience that the sequence of instruction became clear and
formed the primary bases for the chosen teaching strategies in the end.  (ii)        Knowledge of
students’ understanding in science To employ PCK effectively, teachers must have knowledge about what
students know about a topic as well as areas of likely difficulty. This
component includes knowledge of student’s conceptions of particular topics,
learning difficulties, motivation as well as 
diversity in ability, learning styles, interests, developmental levels
and needs. (Park, et al., 2007) Knowledge about my students (as revealed
in the video recordings) enabled me to: (i)         Select
learning and teaching styles which suited them,(ii)        Formulate
methods to shape their learning,(iii)       Identify
their learning difficulties,(iv)       Use
their prior knowledge to introduce them to new knowledge, and(v)        To
identify and address misconceptions. Knowledge about my students also
influenced my teaching strategy as I had approached the teaching of
electromagnetism differently as stipulated in the CAPS document. The curriculum
encourages teachers to start with Faraday’s Law. This approach would not suit
my learners as they did not have any substantial prior knowledge specifically
of the EMI process. However, from grade 10, they do know : ·          
electricity is generated, i.e. through moving charges;·          
are magnetic fields, where they can be found, and how to draw magnetic fields
around a simple bar magnet;·          
a magnetic field would produce an electric field at 90o angles and
those electric fields would in turn produce magnetic fields that are
perpendicular to each other, through means of moving charges. (from
electromagnetic radiation) Therefore, at the onset of teaching
electromagnetism, learners were required to revise these concepts and
definitions, before discussions and observations about EMI per se could take place. Through this approach I could ensure that
learners would make sensible observations and discussions developed from the
practical demonstration would be more intellectual of nature. The practical activities were also
designed in such a manner that it would be best suited to their learning needs
as it required them to make intelligent observations in order to draw
scientifically correct conclusions. (Appendix G). (iii)       General pedagogical knowledge The video recordings
reveal instances of general pedagogical knowledge in the teaching strategies
that were employed during instruction. These strategies include problem-solving
strategies; demonstrations; explanations as well as lessons sequencing that all
aided to make information more accessible for learners.Lesson sequencing first
involved revising key principles about electricity and magnetism from grade 10,
before learning key concepts, definitions and laws about EMI. Once this has
been mastered, learners were ready to engage in a practical activity and
simulations in order to make intelligent observations. (iv)       Knowledge of context The video-recordings
not only indicated awareness of the resources to be used during instruction,
but also how they should be used. The phrases ‘magnets’, ‘coils’, and ‘galvanometers’ represent the resources
that I used during instruction. The phrases ‘microphones’, ‘seismographs’;
‘card swiping machines’ and ‘transformers, generators and induction
stoves’ represent some of the resources that I used in the form of pictures
to link what learners have learned in the classroom with the devices that
learners usually encounter in their everyday life. Data analysis in terms of the three
manifestations: (i)         Curricular saliency  A closer inspection of the grade 11
curriculum on EMI (Appendix D) reveals that the curriculum emphasises the
teaching of the EMI process, Faraday’s law, Right Hand Rule and the use of
equations to solve EMI problems amongst others. The curriculum does not however
explicitly stipulate how the concepts used in EMI should be defined or
conceptualised. What the curriculum does reveal is how Faraday’s law should be
stated and how the Right Hand Rule should be used to determine the directions
of the induced current and its associated magnetic field. The curriculum
further shows the quantities for which the two equations (? = -N??/?t and ? =
BA) should be used in calculations. The lessons that was planned and
presented focused both on the content that was explicitly and implicitly stated
in the curriculum as it is valuable in enhancing learner understanding of the
topic. The paragraphs that follow discuss how some of the limitations of the
curriculum was addressed in order to ensure that the topic was transformed
comprehensively to the learners. The Physical Sciences CAPS-document
proposes a method for teaching the EMI process: “Use words and pictures to
describe in words and pictures what happens when a bar magnet is pushed into or
pulled out of a solenoid connected to an ammeter” (DoE, 2006, p. 66). The
extract suggests the use of illustrations (words and pictures) to explain the
process. A teaching strategy only consisting of words and pictures would have been
ineffective for my students as they had no prior knowledge of the EMI
phenomenon. As a teacher, I also knew that most of my students have difficulty
visualising scenarios only from pictures. Therefore, in both topics presented,
this disparity was addressed by first introducing core concepts with the aid of
words and pictures (supported by the power point slides used – Appendix G) and
then enforcing these core principles by making use of a video (lesson 1) or a
simulation (lesson 2) and then a practical activity (lesson 1 & lesson 2)
in order to observe and verify the core concepts as they have been taught. The use of words such as ‘use’, ‘state’,
and ‘calculate’ in the curriculum document seems to suggest that the
curriculum promotes routine learning rather than conceptual understanding.   (ii)       The
use of representations (including analogies) Various ways of
representing subject matter emerged from the lessons that were presented. These
forms of subject matter representations included diagrams, laboratory
apparatus, concept maps, formulae, examples, illustrations and a few analogies.
(Appendix G : Appendix H). These representations assisted in explaining,
illustrating and demonstrating the phenomena of electromagnetism I was trying to teach. 

Concept maps were used
to link learner’s prior knowledge with new knowledge, but also to form a
summary in order to visualize the bigger picture. For example, during Lesson
2.2 a concept map was used to summarize the whole concept of the EMI process.Diagrams, videos and
simulations were used to explain or illustrate new concepts, to correct
misconceptions or reinforce what was already explained. Diagrams were included
in the power point presentations and the simulations and video is included in
the lesson plan. (Appendix G). Laboratory apparatus
were used to illustrate certain concepts relating to electromagnetism. The apparatus used in the lessons included
galvanometers, solenoids, conducting wires and bar magnets. In the first lesson
the use of the laboratory apparatus was two-fold, namely: (i)         to give learners the opportunity to use
some of the apparatus that are used in            EMI;  and (ii)        to allow learners to observe the EMI

In Lesson 1.4 the use
of laboratory apparatus was meant to assist learners in investigating the
relationship between current and magnetic field. (Figure 6 (a) & (b)). In
subsequent lessons, the apparatus were used to reinforce knowledge that has
already been explained.(iii)       Conceptual teaching strategies Rollnick, et al., (2008) refers to
conceptual teaching strategies (also known as topic-specific instructional
strategies) as a broader teaching approach used by the teacher to facilitate
instruction in a direction that promotes conceptual understanding. The overall
instructional strategy used in this study was informed by the post modernistic
approach to teaching and learning, which is rooted in constructivism. This
approach emphasizes that all students can learn and that challenging subject
matter is linked to higher order thinking skills. It emphasizes, more
specifically, that intellectual abilities are developed both through social and
cognitive constructivism. My personal teaching strategy and use of
representations was mainly informed by my own personal learning characteristics
and preferences. This can be demonstrated by: (1)        The
use of visualization (through means of power point presentations, simulations,            demonstrations and a video). I
perceive myself as being a visual learner as I am able to     learn better from drawings compared to
writings. I also believe that my preference for           visualization as a learner influenced my frequent use of
visualization as a teacher. I     frequently
drew pictures, and flow charts, whereas during discussions I made use of             figures, simulations and a video of
the content students should know and learn. (2)        The
belief that knowledge informs skills, capabilities and conceptual
understandings.         Hence, students
were first taught the core principles, laws and definitions before       participating in a practical activity
where they could demonstrate their knowledge and use the practical activities to verify the learned laws, principles and
definitions. The
first goal was to teach learners concepts, basic equations and the formulation
of mathematical concepts, in order to enable learners to understand the
importance of the application of the laws of electromagnetism.  The
second goal was to teach learners how to use scientific applicable models in
order to solve scientific problems, in an attempt to empower the learners to
examine results and provide scientifically correct answers as based on
fundamental concepts. The
third goal was to demonstrate to learners that by using abstract concepts with
the right mathematical tools one is able to examine, explain and formulate
practical applications. 

these three teaching goals still employ the traditional way of teaching but use
many tools such as computer-aided programs to help learners visualize the
scientific phenomena associated with electromagnetism.
The traditional approach teaches learners the fundamental concepts and basic
mathematical formulation so that learners can apply these to solving realistic
problems. Figure 8 is a visual
representation of my teaching strategy, which indicates the importance of the
particular sequence of the content form the first lesson (L1.1) up to the last
lesson (L2.3). Topic 1 (including Lessons 1.1 – 1.4) primarily focused on the
introduction of electromagnetism as
well as concepts of induced current and induced magnetic field. Topic 2
(including Lessons 2.1 -2.3) focussed on concepts such as magnetic flux,
magnetic field strength and induced emf.  
(Appendix F)


The three Big Ideas as formulated in the CoRe also
emerged in the lessons that were presented. After finishing teaching the
process of EMI, I was concerned that I really did not explicitly mention the Big Ideas to the learners.(represented
by BI 1 – BI 3). However, while analysing the data on the lessons presented it
became clear that this problem was actually addressed during instruction. The
mere fact that the EMI process and Faraday’s law were discussed in detail
during instruction confirms that these ideas were brought up to the attention
of the learners.


Note: Lenz’s Law was also mentioned and
discussed in detail during instruction although not explicitly required
according to the CAPS document.





            12.4.5   Integrating my TSPCK


Interaction with the curriculum and
transforming the content into knowledge that is understandable to the students
can be illustrated through the development of my knowledge about curricular
saliency. This is evident in the decisions that were made primarily in regards
to sequencing both the curricular and subject matter content. Knowledge about
the subject matter, the learners and the learning environment played a role in
transforming the curriculum.


Sound knowledge of the subject matter was
required in deciding what to include and exclude in my teaching strategy. The
decision to incorporate multimedia, illustrations, diagrams, practical
activities, videos and simulations confirmed that I had sound knowledge of my
students diverse learning needs.


The overall instructional strategy was
informed by knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of learners and general
pedagogical knowledge that I had developed. The overall instructional strategy
reveals the amount of subject matter knowledge that I had acquired and how this
content was structured to explore the Big
Ideas of the topic. Knowledge of learners regarding how they prefer to
learn and their learning difficulties informed the teaching strategies that I
employed during lesson presentations. The sequencing of lessons was also
influenced by the intended learning objectives as set out within the CAPS
curriculum. These teaching strategies and the way the lessons were sequenced
were in turn informed by the general pedagogical knowledge that I had developed
through means of the concept maps and the CoRes.


Subject matter representations (Lesson
1.1) were used to link learners’ prior knowledge with new knowledge, developing
learners’ conceptual understanding and stimulating their interest in the topic.
Knowledge of selecting relevant representations and the awareness of the
dangers associated with using representations confirmed the general pedagogical
knowledge. The extensive use of concept maps in preparing for the lessons
reflected how my SMK had developed as well as how it was connected. However,
the inability to provide sufficient analogies when presenting the topic
suggests that my SMK had not yet fully developed. Therefore, SMK, knowledge of
learners and general pedagogical knowledge plays an important role in deciding
the type of representations to use when presenting any topic of physical
sciences. Knowledge of context played a role in designing the practical activities
in order to establish core concepts, as set forth in the curriculum document.
Knowledge of the subject matter can also be indicated by the memo that had been
set up for these two practical activities.


Although learners were not required to
write a formal test on electromagnetism at the time of the study, learners were
however assessed on the topic of electromagnetism later the term during the
commencement of their second term test, as prescribed by the CAPS document.



            12.4.6   Conclusion


The analysis of the video recordings
revealed that primarily two domains of PCK, namely subject matter knowledge and
knowledge about the students plays a prominent role in informing the
manifestations of PCK. Subject matter knowledge and knowledge of learners featured
in all manifestations with knowledge of context and general pedagogical
knowledge featuring interchangeably amongst the manifestations. The featuring
of the domains in the manifestations confirmed the importance of PCK in
developing ways of transforming subject matter into knowledge that is
accessible to the learners.


The development of subject matter
knowledge and knowledge of learners in the analysis was not surprising
considering that the study focuses on learning the topic and then teaching it.
The two domains highlight the importance of sound knowledge of subject matter
as well as the understanding of the learners and their behaviour in ensuring
effective teaching practice. The featuring of SMK in all manifestations
confirmed the role played by SMK in the development of my PCK. To be able to teach
effectively, I had to develop sound knowledge of the topic and then transform
it into knowledge comprehensible to the learners.


The knowledge that I learned from the
learners during instruction also contributed towards the development of my PCK.
Their learning challenges which I observed during instruction were remediated
and also recorded in the reflection sections of the lesson plans for future
references. The results suggest that in as much as there was progress with
regards to the development of my PCK, certain aspects of my teacher knowledge
still required some further development. Although I had acquired a substantial
amount of subject matter knowledge of the topic, it seems that this knowledge was
not yet fully explored, as my teaching was not as flexible as I would have
liked. However, Rollnick, et al., (2008)
confirm that the development of PCK is a slow process requiring both
time and opportunity to experiment and to develop. It is never fixed and is a
dynamic process.


Applying (TS)PCK according to the
theoretical framework of this study, emphasizes the constructivist process,
continually changing, representing a category of knowledge needed to turn a
novice teacher into a subject specialist.