How many hours of someone’s life are necessary to perfect a skill? 300? 5000? Perhaps try 10,000 hours. In this chapter from Outliers, “The 10,000-Hour Rule”, Malcolm Gladwell argues that talent isn’t innate, but takes 10,000 hours to perfect a skill based on opportunity, talent, and practice. Throughout the chapter “The 10,000-Hour Rule”, Malcolm Gladwell effectively relies on logos–evidence from well-known figures and charts that show age similarities–to support his theory that it takes a particular window of time to offer someone the opportunity to practice for 10,000 hours to succeed at a skill. However, Gladwell ineffectively relies on repetition of evidence and failure to acknowledge counterexamples in an attempt to force the reader to believe the validity of his theory; this is unfair because it creates a false sense of ethos for the readers. Gladwell’s efficient use of logos, shown through evidence from well-known figures and charts that show age similarities, convinces the audience to believe his claim. Gladwell uses logos by inputting background information to refer back to while supporting his claim. A great way Gladwell provided logos was the charts demonstrated on pages 56 to 61 because it shows that there is a plethora of evidence to support his claim. The charts give evidence and facts that birthday correlates to success, which supports Gladwell’s claim and forces the audience to believe him. Gladwell offers allusions to famous icons, which makes it easier for the audience to understand. He references prominent figures in the media such as the Beatles and Bill Gates. “Is the ten-thousand-hour rule a general rule of success?”, “Let’s test the idea with two examples”, and “the Beatles, one of the most famous rock bands ever”(47) shows Gladwell’s use of allusion to the Beatles by explaining that they are the one of the most famous bands ever. This aids the audience’s understanding because of the Beatles’ prominent background and appearances in the media. “Let’s test the idea with two examples” and “Bill Gates, one of the world’s richest men” is another example of Gladwell alluding to famous figures because he explains that Bill Gates is the one of richest men in the world. By providing statements from those famous figures, the audience can envision what and how long it took for those people to get where they are today. “Here is John Lennon… talking about the band’s performances”, “the experience playing all night long”, “Here is Pete Best, the Beatles’ drummer”, and “we played almost nonstop” shows that the audience has become presented with multiple points of view, which is the rhetorical device of repetition. These points will compel the audience to remember how efficient working for 10,000 hours is for mastering a skill. An ineffective device used by Gladwell was his use of repetition of evidence and failure to acknowledge counterexamples by forcing the reader into thinking that Gladwell’s theory is the only one possible to be correct. The lack of acknowledgment towards counterexamples thrusts the audience into thinking that Gladwell’s opinion is the only viable one. The repetition of evidence might force the reader to believe that the evidence that Gladwell gives becomes redundant. Gladwell also fails to acknowledge that his theory could be incorrect, which makes the reader determine that Gladwell is not able to counter an argument if there was evidence of an outlier. Gladwell’s failure to acknowledge counterexamples makes his claim faulty because even if there was a chance of an outlier being present Gladwell should be able to counter it and prove that he, in fact, is correct. By only giving evidence that shows his claim to be accurate, this creates a false sense of ethos for the readers. They believe he is credible because there is nothing to tell them otherwise. If there were a piece of evidence that contradicted the author’s claim which the author then proved false, then the author would create a real sense of ethos. In conclusion, Gladwell uses effective and ineffective rhetorical devices, which influence the way the audience interprets the story. Gladwell’s use of repetition could be described as adequate or inadequate based on the type of audience. Some people may think that the repeated section is redundant and should only be mentioned once, but others could disagree and believe that the same section could reinforce how long it takes to master a skill. Gladwell effectively used logos to support his claim but failed to acknowledge counterexamples to his case, which in turn creates a false sense of ethos for the reader. Gladwell’s failure to recognize the counterexamples misinforms the reader where they are wholly relying on Gladwell as a source because he seems reliable, but in reality is not. Gladwell uses a mix of both active and ineffective rhetorical devices but mainly convinces the reader that his claim is valid.