Health burn infections, ear infections or meningitis. Bacillus is

Health and disease assignment 1 ‘A picture of health’Bacteria Bacteria are larger and can reproduce repeatedly. There are three types of bacteria; coccus, bacillus and spirillum.  They can infect you and cause you to become ill. For example, you could gain a fever and have symptoms such as a headache, a build-up of mucus in the nose and a cough. Examples: Coccus (cocci) – is a bacterium that has a general round shape. It is one in three distinct bacterial shapes. These bacteria affect all parts of the body and can cause illnesses like food poisoning, pneumonia and even meningitis. The coccus is normally produced in chains or clusters and move like a corkscrew. They move faster than bacteria and their rigid cell shape wall gives them their shape. There is also an illness called the cocci infection, it’s like a fever and caused by fungus coccidiodes. In animals, like dogs, the coccidiodes infection is an intestinal tract caused by one-cell organisms called coccidia. Bacillus- Are rod shaped bacteria found in soil and water. It can often affect livestock and can be transmitted through improper handling of an infected animal or by eating under-cooked food from the animal (food poisoning) some types of bacillus are harmful to animals and humans, it is often found on skin and infect them incidentally. Bacilli have a large surface area that helps take in nutrients but they could dry out easily. Bacillus diseases include: abscesses, burn infections, ear infections or meningitis. Bacillus is important because it has a capsule of poly-D-glutamate polypeptide and it helps the bacteria avoid being phagocytized. This lets bacteria gain a foothold inside the host. Spirillum- is a spiral shaped bacteria that have flagella at both ends allowing them to move like a corkscrew as they are the fastest bacteria out of the three. An example of sprilla is leptospira interrogans and these can cause diseases like leprosaria which can lead to liver damage. Animals are commonly affected and have these problems. Fungi Examples: Zygomycota- (sporangia) is a division. They live in plants, soil or animal material. Some are parasites of plants, insects, and small animals and others are sometimes with plants. The common name for zygomycota is ‘bread mould’ as the fungi is mould and invade many food products (they decompose products).  Few are infectious with humans and animals and don’t normally cause diseases. All members of the zygomycota have coenocytic hyphae with a haploid nuclei, this means that they do not have septum that separate the cells. They also only have one copy of chromosome and can reproduce asexually or sexually- (occurs when environmental conditions are unfavourable.) Basidiomycota- club like structure that form spores that are found on things like underneath mushrooms. This type of fungi include: mushrooms, puff balls, smuts, rusts, and stinkhorns which are all a type of plant. (They can be edible-excluding animals and plants.) they seek nutrients and grow hypha. Many of these fungi have a dimorphic life cycle and most dimorphic basidiomycetes are pathogenic on plants and animals. Ascomycota- are a division of the fungi kingdom. It’s members are commonly known as the sac fungi or ascomycetes. They are the largest type of fungi with over 64,000 species. They are decomposers but are used to make medicines like antibiotics and food, however their main function is to do with pathogens. VirusesExamples: influenza virus- commonly called the flu and is an infectious disease of the respiratory system caused by a virus and results in a fever, muscle pain, headaches and inflammation of membranes in the respiratory tract. There are 4 types of this virus; A,B,C and D. A and B are viruses that cause seasonal epidemics of disease. C is an infection that causes a mild illness and do not cause epidemics. D affect cattle but do not effect people. You can get flu by person to person contact (from within 6 feet) flu is spread by droplets made when people with flu cough , sneeze or speak. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or inhaled into the lungs. The droplets can also land on surfaces e.g phones, keyboards, tables. If a healthy person touches it they can be immediately effected with the influenza. Your body makes proteins called anti-bodies that destroy foreign cells they help to fight off flu and protect you from major diseases like heart disease, or cancer. How does flu attack your body? New viruses get caught in mucus and other fluids inside you and are destroyed. They can get expelled in coughing and sneezing. Meanwhile, your immune system is attacking any virus it can find. Can animals get flu?It’s uncommon however, it is most frequent in cats and dogs, also known as canine influenza. This is type A in the flu category and can cause the animals to have a cough, runny nose, eye discharge and a reduced appetite. However, humans cannot get this type of flu. It is most common in places like kennels and vets. Bacteriophage- also known as phage or the bacteria virus. Any of a group of viruses that infect bacteria. These bacteria only affect specific types of bacteria cells which means they are not harmful to humans or animals. They attach to the surface of the cell with tail proteins and affect the cell wall. They then inject their DNA (head)  into the bacteria cell. The cell either makes viral proteins (which spreads) or the DNA is kept until the conditions are right, then it bursts. Bacteriophage is capable of helping diseases like leprosy or tobergolosis and is sometimes used in poultry and meat products. However, they are a problem in the dairy industry as phage infections can lead to slow or failed milk fermentation. ParasitesEctoparasites- is a parasites (or animal) such as a flea, that usually lives on the outer layer of its host. The flea lives in or on the skin but not inside the body. They feed on the skin which causes irritation and the the need to itch or scratch that area. Ectoparasites are commonly found on animals like dogs, cattle or sheep. On dogs, it is almost certain that a dog will get infested with fleas during some point during its life. The fleas live on the dog and feed on their blood. Around 40-50 eggs are laid by the female flea which makes it harder for the infestation to disappear. The fleas/eggs also fall off the dog and fall onto the surrounding areas, making it even harder to get rid off. Some flea infestations can cause skin diseases and severe irritation depending on the sensitivity of the animal. Some examples of ectoparasites:? flea ? Lice? Leach? Tic? Mites? Ixodes ricinus Some examples of animals that can get fleas:? Cats ? Dogs? Foxes? Rodents ? Deer? Cattle? SheepHumans can also get fleas, mainly off animals. Most flea bites can result in red spots that become itchy or can result in a burning sensation. Fleas target your legs or feet and may sometimes even infest your whole body. You can be infected more easily if you have a pet such as a cat or dog based on the information above. Helminths- is a parasite which is a disease causing organism. It lives in humans and/or animals. It derives its nourishment from its host (either another animal or human.) Helminths eggs contaminate food, air, water, pets/animals and faeces. The eggs enter the human body through the nose, mouth or anus. Once the eggs are inside the body, the eggs live inside the intestine, hatch, grow and then multiply. They can also infest other parts of the body but commonly the intestine. To get rid of the helminth eggs, a drug called vermifuges is used to kill them and stop them multiplying. Prevention the infestation is to:? Washing your hands? Cleaning of bathrooms and kitchens? Thorough cooking of all foods especially meats and fish? Water should always be chlorinated The problems helminth eggs could cause:? Roundworms- they hatch and live inside of your intestine and normally enter your body through contaminated water or food. Symptoms of roundworm include the following; weight loos, poor appetite and diarrhoea. It can be cured with prescribed antibiotics. Whiteout this, you could develop malnutrition and anaemia. Roundworm commonly infect people, pigs, and any other animals that could potentially be a victim to contaminated food and water. ? Tapeworms- also live in the intestine. The eggs enter the body through raw/under cooked meat- normally beef (from cattle.) Tapeworms can infect, dogs, cats, but usually just people. You may experience some abdominal pain, weight loss and diarrhoea. It can be treated with antibiotics that will kill the tapeworm in a few days and you can prevent tapeworms by making sure food is well cooked and washing your hands. Parasites Malaria- plasmodium (the causing of malaria). Golgi complex- is made up of membrane-bound sacs. They process macromolecules like proteins and lipids. One function is to sort proteins to be secreted. Vacuole- is again, a membrane- bound sac. They are filled with inorganic and organic molecules. There is no typical size or formation of the vacuole, they just depend on the individual cell. Mitchochondria- to produce the energy currency of the cell through respiration and cellular metabolism. I.e cellular respiration. This is was breaks down and turns into energy. Plasmalemma- consists of a lipid layer along with proteins. The function is to protect the cell from its surroundings. Food vacuoles- are a membrane- enclosed cell with a digestive property.Ribosomes- makes protein and helps to repair damaging chemical processes.Haemozoin-