GENERAL stage interprets the measured signal and decides regarding


is an act of assigning a specific value to a physical variable.

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variable- is a variable that can be measured and given a number. Example 3
meters, 3 feet, etc.…

– The conversion of energy from one form to another is known as

A transducer converts a signal to another type
of signal.  An amplifier is an example of
transducer because of the many transducers it contains and how it transfers one
form of energy to another form.

A telephone converts soundwave to electrical
signals which travel through the range of cell towers going back to the receiver.

Sensor –
is a body which reacts to a physical, chemical or biological condition.

A cantilever beam is a sensor, (a device
component that can measure and respond to heat, light, motion and other types
of phenomenon’s.)

Example of a sensor, thermocouple, speed sensor,
photoresistor, etc.…

stage- indicates or records the value measured.

General Template
for a Measurement System

Sensor-Transducer stage

Signal-conditioning stage is the manipulation of
a signal that prepares the signal for the output stage.  It converts the signal to an allowable form
of processing.

Output stage records the values measured and performs
data analysis.

Feedback-control stage interprets the measured
signal and decides regarding the control of the process.

Noise and

a sound, especially one that is loud or unpleasant or that causes disturbance.

 the action of interfering or the
process of being interfered with.

When plotting and recording measurement, noise interference
can scatter the points or data values and offset your true data values.

In this instance, it is best to randomize your
experimental results to help reduce or stop interference.

test- a measurement matrix that sets a random order to the change in the
value of the independent variable applied.


This process is designed to find a result while
utilizing different types of methods to obtain a result similar in all trials.

applies a known input value to a measurement system for observing the system
output value.

calibration- determines the relationship between an input of known dynamic
behavior and the measurement system output.


Sensitivity-  the ratio of the change
in output to the corresponding change in input under static or steady state

inputs ranging from the minimum to the maximum values for which the measurement
system is to be used.

the smallest increment in the measured value that can be discerned. In terms of
a measurement system, it is quantified by the smallest scale increment.