FISH plant waste, which release tannins and organic acids

 

FISH
COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN FRESHWATER AREAS IN MALAYSIA

 

ABSTRACT

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

A study showed that
numerous in depth survey have been finished on the ichthyofauna of the peat
swamp forests (PSFs) of Malaysia. This overview aims to provide a tick list of
blackwater fish species in Malaysia, and address their comparatively cheap
significance, conservation fame and issues of PSFs. A total of 198 peat swamp
fish species from 32 families were recorded in Malaysia. From this quantity, a
total of 114 species from 23 families, representing approximately 40% of the
acknowledged fish fauna in Peninsular Malaysia, had been recorded from north
Selangor PSF.Meanwhile, a complete of forty nine species belonging to 18
families, 13 species from seven families, 58 species belonging to 19 families,
and 9 species from 5 fmilies had been recorded from the peat swamps of Perak,
Johor, Pahang and East Peninsular Malaysia (parts of Pahang and Terengganu),
respectively. In the meantime, 31 species from 12 families and 40 species
belonging to 13 Families have been recorded from Sabah and Sarawak,
respectively. Family Cyprinidae has the best recorded species, accompanied
through Osphronemidae, Bagridae and Siluridae. 12 threatened species dealing
with risk of extinction. The significance of preserving PSFs fishes become
mentioned and suggestions made consistent with the objectives of conservation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.0
INTRODUCTION

 

Peat swamp forests (PSFs) are a
standout amongst the most unordinary and harsh biological systems in the
tropical rainforest biome. The PSFs of Peninsular Malaysia are the most
undermined (illegal logging, water system of oil palm and paddy fields), yet the
most inadequately comprehended biotopes (Ng et al., 1994). Those swamps get
their name from their substrate of peat comprising of plant waste, which
release tannins and organic acids into poorly cradled water and add to its
normally low pH (Ng et al., 1994; yule, 2010; Posa et al., 2011; Wantzen et
al., 2011). Peat swamps are essentially called as ‘black waters’, whilst waters
starting from PSFs are very acidic with pH measurements strolling from 3.6 to
5.9, tea-shaded while seen towards transmitted mild, and dark while seen en
masse with the aid of contemplated mild (Johnson, 1967ab; 1968).

 

The best areas of the black
waters of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia recorded by  Wyatt-Smith (1959; 1964), Johnson (1967a;
1968), Anderson (1983) and Whitmore (1984; 1988) have been changed over to
cultivation, business and neighbourhoods (Ng et al., 1994). The peat swamp
forests of Johor, which were of lovely vastness in Peninsular Malaysia, are
absolutely degraded. Peat swamp forests of dazzling length in Peninsular
Malaysia are presently restrained to north Selangor, crucial Terengganu and
Pahang (Ng et al., 1994).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The particular residences of
black waters (darkish coloration, low dissolved oxygen and high acidity)
brought about an underlying confusion of ‘habitat inhospitality’, and the
belief that such living space will manage extremely negative faunal respectable
range. One of the soonest studies of the fish fauna of Malaysia peat swamps
become with the aid of Johnson (1967ab; 1968) who recorded simply 26 species in
black waters, of which just a one is stenotopic to black water.

The principle difficulty that
takes place at several varieties of fishes in freshwater areas is fished had
been residing in wild action, as an instance, logging, industrialization, and
pollutions. The targets of this study are to offer a lcheckist of black water
fish species in Malaysia, examine their economic significance and also to
collate records and decide the distribution of the peat swamp fishes.

 

 

 

1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

 

       
i.           
To list fish species that been sampled
at selected areas along freshwater areas in Malaysia and determine their
economic importance of peat swamp fishes

      ii.           
To highlight the conservation
status of peat swamp fish species in Malaysia

 

 

 

 

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEWS

2.1
Diversity of Fish

 

It has
been assessed that the total number of all fishes around the globe is 32,500
species (Nelson, 2006). The latest research done by Chong
et al. (2010), listed a total of 521 species of freshwater fish inhabiting
Malaysian freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater fish are fish that spend part or
the majority of their lives in freshwater. Their natural surroundings as a rule
comprises of lentic and lotic biological systems. Lentic biological communities
are those with still water, for example, lakes, marshes and lakes. Lotic are the ecosystems of rivers, streams and springs.
Those two territories are altogether different. Living conditions in them are
impacted by ecological conditions and water composition.

 

Freshwater
fishes in Malaysia are reasonably differing with roughly 470 species of
comprising freshwater fishes concerning 15 families have been recorded in
Malaysia (Chong et al,  2010)  and 
greater  than  200 
species  can  be 
discovered  in  Peninsular 
Malaysia  (Ismail  and Sabariah, 1995). according to
Zakaria-Ismail (1994), species composition of freshwater fish in Peninsular
Malaysia is very suffering from Siamese and Indonesian factors. Peninsular
Malaysia is bounded through Thailand in 
the north and Indonesian archipelago inside the south.  The stream and advent of the fish in each
dwelling area had been nearly connected with different factors, for instance,
availability of meals, breeding places,

 

 

velocity of water,
intensity, topography and physicochemical characteristics of water
(Harris,1995).

 

Besides, it is additionally home
to various types of freshwater fishes and exotic wildlife. From studies and
perceptions led by the Department of Fisheries, species such as the big Lampam
Sungai (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii), Toman ( Channa micropeltes), and Kelisa
(Osteoglossidae) an others species are found in waters and around dead trees.

 

Dynamic developing may
prompt natural surroundings devastation, degradation and discontinuity which
posture genuine dangers to aquatic environment and its resource potential. As a
part of stream biological community, fish not just assumes a huge part in
keeping up a healthy aquatic environment, it is additionally a part of food
chain. Although Malaysia is known to have a high diversity of fish, their
current status and the total number of species found are left to much argument
and speculation (V. C. Chong, P. K. Y. Lee, C. M. Lau, 2010).

 

Investigations of
spatial and fleeting examples of decent variety, distribution and species composition
of freshwater fishes are valuable to look at factors affecting the structure of
the fish group (Galactos et al., 2004). Fish species also can determine the
ecological health. The distribution and health of fish also show the health of
water bodies (Hamzah, 2007).

 

 

 

 

 

2.2 Abiotic factors on distribution of freshwater species

 

Abiotic factors and
their effect on fish assemblages. Abiotic factors were separated into two
grids: one with physical and chemical variables (electric conductivity, pH,
water temperature, dissolved oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Chemical
Oxygen Demand (COD), and the other with morphometric variables (width, water
velocity, discharge, depth). The species distribution of fish in the lake is
essentially extraordinary with the species circulation of fish in marine
biological community. According
to National Biological Information
Infrastructure (NBII), freshwater fish will frequently be not able survive if
the saltiness levels of their encompassing water achieve more than .05 percent.
These characteristics for every morphology of fish will be utilized to
distinguish the types of fish and record similarly as to their family and
species level.

 

2.2.1
Water Quality

 

Many variables can
influence water quality around the lake, for example, sedimentation, runoff,
disintegration, dissolved oxygen, Ph, temperature, and litter and junk.
Substances in air will influence precipitation in a zone. Carbon dioxide,
oxygen, and nitrogen, are dissolved or entrapped in rain. At the point when
different substances, for example, sulphur dioxide, poisonous chemicals, or
lead are noticeable all around, they are additionally gathered in the rain as
it tumbles to the ground.

 

 

 

 

This is some example if
the soils contain high measures of dissolvable substances such as limestone, high
concentrations of calcium carbonate will affected in the runoff. Industrial,
cultivating, mining, and forestry activities essentially influence the rivers,
and groundwater. For instance, cultivating can build the centralization of
supplements, pesticides, and suspended residue. Factories can build
convergences of metals and harmful chemicals, include suspended sediment, raise
of temperature, and lower dissolved oxygen in the water. Each of these impacts
can  give negative affect to the aquatic
biological ecosystem and additionally make water unsuitable for established or
potential employments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.0
DISCUSSION

 

3.1
Taxonomy

 

3.3.1
North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest

 

A
survey of freshwater fish of NSPSF in 1989 from Davies and Abdullah (1989),
recorded forty two fish species belonging to 11 families. A number of
scientific names, from circle of relatives to species level, had been changed
over the past decade. The most latest comprehensive listing of such changes is
outlined in Kottelat’s catalogue of the fishes of Southeast Asia (Kottelat,
2013).

Research
by Beamish et al. (2003) carried out from 1997 to 1998 recorded 35 fish species
from North Selangor Peat Swamp woodland (NSPSF) belonging to fourteen families
(genuinely thirteen because Belontiidae and Luciocephalidae which are now
included in Osphronemidae, had been recorded separately), at the same time as
Giam et al. (2012) recorded eight blackwater fish species belonging to the six
families from NSPSF.

Currently,
at some stage in the Selangor scientific and Biodiversity Peatland expedition
of 2013, Ahmad et al. (2013), Ismail et al. (2013) and Siow et al. (2013)
recorded 30 species from 13 families, 41 species from thirteen families, and 24
species 10 families.

 

 

 

 

3.1.2 Paya Beriah Peat Swamp
Forest, North Perak

The
Paya Beriah peat swamp forest area (PBPSF), which is placed close to Bukit
Merah reservoir, Perak, has a total area of 5,500 hectares which are bordered
by way of dykes, roads and railway tracks. Like most PSFs in Malaysia, it has
been extensively impacted via conversion to residential, commercial and
agricultural makes use of (Ismail & Ali, 2002). Nevertheless, the fish
population and its biodiversity in PBPSF aren’t nicely documented, in
assessment with NSPSF. The most recognised and nicely-documented surveys in
PBPSF had been achieved with the aid of Zakaria et al. (1999), Rezawaty (2004)
and Shah et al. (2006).

Investigation
from Rezawaty (2004) stated a complete of 30 fish species from 12 families in a
study executed at the complete Sungai Beriah drainage device, at the same time
as at some stage in an intensive survey of the PBPSF, mainly in Beriah Kanan,
Beriah Kiri and Beriah rivers, Shah et al. (2006) recorded a total of 32 fish
species belonging to 13 families.

3.1.3 PSF in Johor

13
fish species and 7 families were found in swamps area, pools, and PSFs of West
Johor and Ambat by Giam et al. (2012).

3.1.4 Southeast Pahang Peat Swamp
Forest

Ahmad
et al. (2005) recorded 58 fish species from 17 families for the duration of a
survey in Bebar River, a huge river that flows out of the southeast Pahang peat
swamp forest (SEPPSF, which is likewise called Pekan peat swamp forest). In Bebar
River and Serai River, the result is the entire fish species recognized in
SEPPSF to 65 species ( Ahmad et al., 2005).

 

 

 

3.1.5 PSF in East Peninsular
Malaysia

Giam
et al. (2012) had overview 9 fish species from six families from the PSF of
east Peninsular Malaysia. The genus are S. lineatus and Neohomaloptera
johorensis.

3.1. PSF in Sabah

The
fish species of Sabah are relatively less surveyed and documented than those of
Peninsular Malaysia. They stated a total number of fish species is 65 species
from 20 families and 30 fish species were recorded in black water ditches,
ponds and streams from the lower Segama River. This was recorded by (Martin-Smith
& Tan, 1998).

Sade
and Biun (2012) studied the ichthyofauna of Maliau Basin, he found that 15 fish
species had been recorded from the investigation, simplest three species had
been recorded from highly acidic yellowish coloured water in the area.

3.1.7 PSF in Sarawak

In
Sarawak, 164 fish species was recorded in brackish waters areas by Parenti and
Lim (2005). A total of 7 blackwater fish species have been listed from blackwater
ditches and pools nearby.

In
blackwater and ponds, four species of fish were found recorded by Tan and Lim
(2013) and also Giam et al. (2012) recorded 13 fish species belonging to five families.

 

 

 

 

 

3.2
THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC OF PEAT SWAMP FISHES IN MALAYSIA

 

In
NSPSF, most of the fish are harvested just for food and also for the money due
to their value (Ng et al., 1994; Ismail et al., 2013). Maximum of the species
harvested for intake with the aid of the local community are offered at very
low charges relative to their real worth (Ng et al., 1994).

 

4.0
CONCLUSION

 

 It is clearly from the continuing that one of
the strongest justifications for conservation of peat swamps is the prevailing
ichthyofauna. Therefore, keeping
fish populations of PSFs can be very importance. Other than the need to keep
suitable aquatic habitats for the fish, a few other critical cause is after the
peat dries out because of drainage, it can cause fire and destroy population
surroundings (Langner et al., 2007)

4.1 The Conservation Reputation of
Peat Swamp Fish Species in Malaysia

Many
researchers make a speculation that our PSF become extinct in the future
(InfoNatura, 2007). The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Red Listing of threatened Species is the high-quality acknowledged conservation
repute list machine within the global, which classifies species into nine
classes based totally on the fee of decline of the population, population
length, geographical range, and percent of population and distribution
fragmentation (Mace et al., 2008).