Extended Chinese were in a terrible political and mental

Extended EssayHow did the fall of the Qing Dynasty influence the rise of communism in China?By: Jonathan HuTable of ContentsIntroduction                                                                                                                                     3The Fall of the Last Dynasty                                                                                                           4The Impact of the Russian Revolution and of Marxism-Leninism on China                                  7The Chinese Communist Party (CCP).                                                                                            8Rise of Mao                                                                                                                                      9Conclusion                                                                                                                                     11Jonathan HuExtended Essay; Mr. Muratore17 January 2018Word Count: 3521The Fall and Revival Having nearly a 4,000-year history, China was united under numerous imperial dynasties. The last of the empires was the Qing dynasty. Ruling for nearly 300 years, the Qing dynasty finally collapsed in the year 1912. “Most historians attribute the decline of China to the inability of its rulers to understand and adopt modern technology. During this time, the industrializations of nations outside of China was becoming much more widespread leaving China behind” (Slyke). While this is true, another key factor leading to the downfall of the Qing Dynasty was the quadrupling of the population under the Qing empire, which put enormous pressure on government resources. Most wanted the abolition of the feudal-Confucian system; all wanted the abolition of foreign privilege and the unification of their vast country. However, the ideology of communism and its form of government was becoming much more popular, and the fall of the Qing dynasty was one of the first major events which had an influence on the start of the communist regime. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, the Chinese were in a terrible political and mental position. Multiple factors such as the Opium Wars made China vulnerable to foreign countries. During 1839-1842 and 1856-1860, China found itself in an epidemic of opiates. Opium which was brought from India was then transported to China by the British. Britain saw China as a prime target to sell their drug because the country was already using the drug as a form of traditional medicine, along with the fact that the selling of opium was banned in England.  There was a high demand for the drug which eventually led to a majority of the population becoming addicted. The Chinese government at the time attempted to solve the problem by closing their doors to foreign countries for trade, but to no avail. Eventually, British troops would be sent to Hong Kong as an “expeditionary force” to discuss the ban that China had put on selling opium recreationally in China. After breaching through the Chinese blockade. The troops then took control of the city. The two opium wars would serve as a lesson to the Chinese people that the only way to fend for themselves was to adapt and learn how to construct an effective government that could combat Europeans and americans in the west. The heavy losses that China faced during the wars were deemed as the era of humiliation, until 1949 when Mao Zedong would reunify the Chinese people. Besides the opium wars, another major contributing factor in the Qing Dynasty’s downfall was European imperialism. Several of Europe’s largest countries “exerted their control over large portions of Asia and Africa in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, putting pressure even on the traditional superpower of East Asia, imperial China” (Szczepanski). After losing much of its power to the opium wars, China began to slowly lose controls on its exterior regions of land. France seized Southeast Asia, creating its colony of French IndoChina while Japan stripped away Taiwan, and took effective control of Korea. By the 1900s, various other major powers including France, Britain, and Russia established “spheres of influence” where the land belonged to China, however, the trade and military were primarily influenced by the foreign powers. This essentially gave much of China’s already weakening power to other foreign countries, leading to a period of time where the peripheral areas of China were being controlled by outsiders. Despite having a leering foreign presence within China, various internal conflicts also lead to the destruction of the Qing Dynasty. One of the primary internal reasons why the Qing dynasty fell was its purge against modernization. Qing Dynasty empress, Dowager Cixi, refused to follow the path of Japan’s Meiji restoration, and modernizing the country, while instead of removing all who sought out modernization. Now following this, there were massive anti-foreigner movements within China. By the late 1890s, “a Chinese secret group, the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, had begun carrying out regular attacks on foreigners and Chinese Christians” (History). The reason behind their attacks was that foreign powers and ideology was the reason behind the weakening of their country, along with the poor standard of living. In 1900, the “Boxer movement spread to the Beijing area, where the Boxers killed Chinese Christians and Christian missionaries and destroyed churches and railroad stations and other property” (History). Soon the Empress of China declared war on all foreign nations with diplomatic ties to China. From here on, the Boxers would slowly siege across northern China as an international force prepared to intervene and save foreigners and Chinese Christians. The Boxer rebellion eventually ended in late 1901. The resolution, the Boxer Protocol, forced the Chinese to destroy the forts defending Beijing, along with the punishment of all the Chinese military officers. The treaty also stated that China was prohibited to import arms while having to pay 330 million dollars in reparations. This significantly weakened the Qing Dynasty.     The Fall of the Last Dynasty Before communism was introduced there was a period of time where China was in a period of confusion.  In the early 19th century, foreign powers had firmly established their separate enclaves in the major coastal cities. They had extensive economic-political privileges, including extraterritorial status. “Along with the power of local warlords, these foreign privileges were a major obstacle to any Chinese political movement aiming to unify the country due to the amount of effort needed to have followers” (Cienciala). Along with the power of local warlords, these foreign privileges were a major obstacle to any Chinese political movement aiming to unify the country. Now under this power, the social structure of China was almost obsolete. The warlords would dominate the peasants, whereas the peasants would lead lives almost similar to livestock. Starvation and terrible living conditions were some of the many hardships the peasants had to overcome, while the warlords would leech off the peasant labor. Along with this, merchants along the coastal cities seemed to work towards more modern methods of capital and vision, however, were stopped by foreign privilege. Merchants understood that China during this period of time was unstable due to the lack of a ruler, where nobles were playing god with the peasants, and realized this instability was a prime time to bring other influential ways of governing. Lastly, the urban workers made around one percent of the current population of China, while also living in similar poverty as peasants. The primary reason for this was the lack of jobs required during this unstable time period, where the higher class people would look solely for cheap or free labor from the peasants. Peasants would play a huge role in the forming of the communist party because they were a majority of the population that Mao Zedong focused on when generating support around the communist party of China. The concept of communism really clicked in for peasants especially because of the concept of equal wealth/common. China had already been controlled by bureaucrats and higher up wealthy leaders that the people of the common poor wealth were eager for change. Due to the dire situation within China, members of the educated class were worried for the future of China and were desperate for change. One of the primary groups who sought out the change was the constitutional monarchists, led by Kang Youwei. Their group sought out help from “Qing Emperor Guangxu who would achieve this aim” (Cienciala), of changing the status of China. However, after passing away in 1908, “the reins of government were taken over by the old dowager empress Cixi, who acted as regent for the boy-emperor, Puyi” (Cienciala). Various other reformers included Liang Qichiao, who rejected violent revolution but sought after informed citizenry and political discipline. Liang also fought for the liberation of women and their participation in political life. Along with various revolutionaries sprouting across the country, Marxism began to become more popular after the translation of the communist manifesto in 1906. The conditions within China made communism an extremely popular idealistic form of government. Communism was especially attractive to the peasants since it was a chance for change and a new way of life. All of these ideas of government and change finally exploded on the May 4th movement of 1919, where “The student-led movement protested against the unfair treatment of China in the peace treaties following World War I, whereby Japan took over the German concession in Shantung and expanded its control over Manchuria” (Cienciala). This movement also attacked the privilege of foreign powers and desperately sought out radical and democratic demands for social reform. These students were soon joined by tired businessmen along with workers of all ability. This was the beginning of a national movement within China. The Impact of the Russian Revolution and of Marxism-Leninism on China.During and after the May 4th movement, intellectuals and outsiders were attracted to Marxism primarily because it was a form of preventing conflicts in which capitalism had trouble solving. The most promising outcome of a Marxism which appealed greatly to the general public was its comparison to westernization of various other countries surrounding China as a result of WW1.  After the seeing the Russian revolution during this time period take place, in June 1918, the head librarian at Beijing University, Li Daozhao, vowed to follow Lenin’s ideas. After seeing the Russian revolution during his time period, Li considered the revolution to be a model for China. Li soon created a Marxist study group at the Beijing University, which soon became extremely popular to numerous students on campus. Here, Mao Zedong joined in 1919, where he was exposed to the large flourishing Marxist community within the campus. After the popularity of communism began to grow rapidly, the head of the Beijing University and editor of the progressive journal, Chen Duxiu, “decided to devote a special issue to Marxism; it was published on May 1, 1919, under the editorship of Li Dazhao” (Rearden-Anderson). The release of this paper spread and analyzed Marxist concepts all over to journal readers across China. As for Li Daozhao, born on October 29, 1888, he was the co-founder of the Chinese communist party. After studying in various schools within China and Japan, Li became an editor for Xinqingnian (“New Youth”), the principal journal of the new Western-oriented literary and cultural movements” (Britannica). He was inspired primarily by the Russian Revolution in 1917 and began to spread his Marxist ideology. In July of 1921, Li’s Marxist groups had finally formally organized the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), he was “instrumental in carrying out the policy dictated by the Communist International and in effecting cooperation between the minuscule CCP and the national leader Sun Yat-sen’s Nationalist Party, Kuomintang” (Bachrack). This was the beginning of the rise of the communist party within China due to the influence of the Russians. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP). During this period of time that Mao redirected Chinese Communism from the workers to the peasants, who made up the vast majority of the population. Thus Mao changed the communist goal in China from a workers’ revolution to a peasant revolution, which he saw as the first step toward a socialist revolution. Furthermore, in cooperation with Li Dazhao, Mao evolved the strategy of operating from a stable base area, and of harassing government troops by guerrilla tactics. “These tactics were not new; they were rooted in traditional Chinese military strategy which Mao knew very well from his reading. They were to play a central role in the ultimate victory of Mao’s forces over Chiang. In 1924, the CCP had combined forces with the Nationalist Party of China, their alliance would work together to rid of the nation of warlords and prevented the formation of a single strong central government. However, this all ended during the “White Terror” of 1927, where Chiang Kai-shek would turn against the communist party of China, thus forcing members of the CCP to go in hiding, which included Mao Zedong. This scenario would eventually lead to Mao Zedong seeking out the people of the countryside in support of his new forming party. After the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Chinese government was facing “the triple threat of Japanese invasion, Communist uprising, and warlord insurrections” (Office of the Historian). After the frustrations of the national leader’s inability to assault Japan, the government instead abducted Chiang Kai-shek and forced him to reconsider his alliance with the communist party. As time continued, the National party had lost control over the communist party leaving its influence to spread across China. As World War II continued, the communist popularity and support also grew, leaving the Republic of China government at a vulnerable position to communist take over. The Civil war within China waged on, the Japanese surrendered in 1945, leaving the stronger communist party to prey on the already weakened central government. Using his developed tactic of guerrilla warfare to fight against Chiang Kai-shek, Mao won numerous battles, allowing his red army to occupy various important cities. Soon his army would occupy many cities of importance. Along with this, Mao’s army was winning skirmishes against Kai-shek. By 1946, China’s civil war reached a point of mayhem. For the next three years, the Communists gained control of an increasing number of major Chinese cities. Although the Communists were much weaker in firepower, training, and support, their popularity and ideology they spread gained a mass majority of the population’s approval, which was bolstered by the collapse of the corrupt and ineffective Nationalist government. Rise of Mao Finally, in October of 1949, the Chinese civil war ended, leaving the communists in complete control of China, still led by Mao Zedong. From then on, the nation was officially deemed the People’s Republic of China. The previous Nationalist party members were moved to a position in Taiwan. Now under Mao’s Communist party, the government that was established was helping to reconstruct the decimated country by using Communistic principles and ideology. Nearly all westerners along with foreign figures were expelled from China, and all form of extraterritoriality was ended. As of result, the western powers soon boycotted new Communist China. Following this time period of reconstruction, in the 1950s, China began to implement economic and social reforms including land reforms. Collectives and agricultural cooperatives were emphasized as villages were turned into communes. As more ideas were considered, and various areas of technology were being created, Chinese society “remained primarily agricultural, with little industrialization” (Gale), since it focused on creating better living standards for peasants. During this time, practices including polygamy were banned by the communist law. One of the major changes, however, was that women gained legal equality through the 1950 Marriage Law dictated by the communist government. Mao was working to create better lifestyles along with more fair rules towards gender equality. Initially, under the Treaty of Friendship, signed in 1950, the Communist Chinese and the Soviet Union were strong allies. Through this agreement, the Soviets agreed that they will provide aid, including military and technological assistance to China. However, a dispute broke out between the two countries less than a decade later on the handling of the Korean War. Soon after, the countries cut allies with each other due to disputes on how to handle communist principles. Along with this, the Chinese were also upset regarding the Soviets refusing to share their knowledge on the creation of an atomic bomb. This relationship soon led to hostility between the two countries. Despite having these conflicts, nine years after seizing power of China, Mao decided to implement his solution to industrialize China: the Great Leap Forward. After the year of successful collectivization in 1955, Mao announced his five-year plan to the people. During the time this process was being implemented, Mao slowly increased the grain quota due to their first success of implementing his plan. However, after Mao ordered the incompatible grains to be planted and harvested together, along with new agriculture methods which were not effective, Mao’s people were left starving due to the lack of cultivated crops. Mao’s five-year program was left as a disastrous failure, inducing famine which killed close to forty million deaths. Despite having such a catastrophic failure, he continued to govern his country. Through his actions, wealthy landlords had their land taken away, because of collectivization, as a form of dehumanization in order to create more openings within the fields where people could work. Conclusion After ruling for 300 years, the final dynasty of China finally fell in 1912, leaving China in an extremely messy state. Various events within China’s past had most definitely weakened the central government, which in turn lead to the fall of the Qing Dynasty, one of the first being the opium wars. While people fought for the sake of a drug, WW1 and the Boxer Revolution came soon after continuing to destroy the already weakened government of the Republic of China. It was at this point where communism slowly began to show it popularity through the people. As Marxism was slowly introduced to the public, Chiang Kai-shek and the nationalists would try their best to oppose this ever-growing ideology which the majority believed would greatly benefit the people of China. After the great civil war, Mao’s red army eventually overpowered Shek’s white army, leading to the downfall of the Republic of China. It was at this point where Mao and his communist government seized power while forcing the Nationalists to immigrate to Taiwan, where the US would continue to support them instead of mainland China. Despite the popularity of communism, various plans implemented within the country eventually led to the deaths of millions. However, while looking back, China’s instability between the fall of the Qing Dynasty and the rise of Mao is the primary reason why communism became popular in China. Works Cited Bachrack, Stanley D, The Committee of One Million. “China Lobby” Politics, 1953-1971, New York, 1976, “Part I: Background.””Boxer Rebellion.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 11 Oct. 2017. .Chiang Kai-shek, Soviet Russia and China: A Summing Up at Seventy, New York, 1975.J. 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