Executive Summary Bangladesh has a vast population. So, it

Executive Summary

Bangladesh
has a vast population. So, it can be used as efficient human resource. But the
scenario of its human resource is not very positive. Although we have a large
workforce, the vast reserves of under trained and underpaid workers are largely
illiterate, unskilled, and under developed. The objective of the study is to
develop the correlation among different indicators of human supply in
Bangladesh. The primary data were collected (>18 years) by the structured
questionnaire. The process of questionnaire preparation and finalization are
followed by pre-testing and preparation of final questionnaire. Garment
workers, Bankers, Leasing Company workers were interviewed during the field
survey. Simple random sampling has followed for the purpose of data collection.
The number of total sample was 50. Of them 35 were male and 15 were female. The
data are put in the SPSS spread sheet. Then SPSS software has been used for the
analysis of the data and development of table as well as graph.  At the age of 20-25, human resource has low
knowledge, skill, ability (KSA) compared to the human resource (HR) at age of
26-30. Moreover, human resource at above 30 has highest KSA among others. The mean of education
level is in between S. S. C. and H. S. C. and it could fluctuate ± 1.15.  In addition, satisfaction level by wage is
about to negative. Due
time payment refers to decreased turnover such as when timely payment is 55%
then turnover rate is only 14%. On the contrary, if the due time payment is not
met then turnover rate will decrease such as when timely payment is 18% then
turnover rate is 48%. In addition, the
less supportive relation with colleague and more working hour leads to low
production, that won’t be supportive to any for the organization as well as for
the whole economy. The more human resource is satisfied with working hour and
working environment, the more safety level of the female resource will be
ensured. The Pearson correlation between timely payment and trade union is
-.403 that implies the variables change in the opposite direction.

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1. Introduction

As a human
resource plentiful country, the prospect of the entire economy of Bangladesh
depends on the features of the human resource supply. In fact, the demand for human
resource is not sufficient enough to generate the job opportunity for the
existing unemployed as well as underemployed workers. Consequently, the economy
faces excess supply of human resource. For various socio-economic reasons,
market does not clear. In job market, employment is determined by the supply of
human resource in situations of full employment. However, in the states of being
without a job and underemployment, employment is determined by the demand
factors. Hence, the components of the supply function and the determinations of
employment need to be analyzed separately (Rahman, 1993).

Keynes
believed that a certain level of frictional unemployment was characteristic of
all labor markets (which are known as natural rate of unemployment). However,
involuntary joblessness may arise when a condition of disequilibrium exists in
the job markets, with supply exceeding demand (Hall, 1970). Any level of
unemployment beyond the natural rate of unemployment most likely due to
insufficient demand in the overall economy.

The human
resource supply depends on some indicators like timely
payment, wage satisfaction level, working environment, recreation, bonus, working
hours, woman safety and security, etc. If these demands are fulfilled by the
organizations and industries, then efficiency of the human resource will be
high. Otherwise, the economic growth of the organizations and industries won’t
be in satisfactory level.

1.1   
Objectives of the study

The
objectives of the study are the purpose of understanding the characters of the
human resource supply in Bangladesh which have been developed due to different
indicators.

·        
To
develop the correlation among different indicators of labor human resource supply
in Bangladesh.

·        
To
construct a number of recommendation for efficient and effective human resource
supply in Bangladesh.

 

 

 

2. Methodology

 For the purpose of primary data were collected
(>18 years) by the structured questionnaire. The processes of questionnaire
preparation and finalization are as follows:

·        
Pre-testing
 the questionnaire by reconnaissance
survey and

·        
Finalization
of questionnaire

On the
basis of the objectives of the study a structure of the questionnaire was
prepared based on information getting from reconnaissance survey, literature
review, etc. Then a few numbers of questionnaires were tasted in the field.
But, it was observed that there was lacking of some information which needs to
be updated. Then, a final questionnaire was prepared on the basis of the information
getting from pre-testing of questionnaire.

Bankers, Garment workers, Leasing Company workers were
the key persons for interviewing during the field survey. Among the many sample
collection methods, the simple random sampling procedure was followed for the
purpose of data collection. The number of total sample was 50. Of them 35 were
male and 15 were female. The data are put in the SPSS spread sheet. Then SPSS
software has been used for the analysis of the data and development of table as
well as graph.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Literature Review 100

This
section reviews the literature on labor force participation (LFP) and labor
supply both in Bangladesh and worldwide.

Chletsos
et al., (2000) found that the growth rate has a positive impact on the
employment level. However, there is a negative relationship between employment
and labor productively. Female Labor Force Participation (FLFP) rate is over 40 percent in
Bangladesh and Nepal, 32 percent in India and Bhutan, 36 percent in Sri Lanka
compared to only 27 percent in Pakistan (World Bank, 1999; UNDP, 1995a). Aly
and Quisi (1996) investigated socio-economic factors that influence Kuwaiti women’s’
labor market participation decision. Discussing FLFP rates in a macro level
study for west Malaysia and Singapore, Fong (1975) estimated the changes in
these rates from 1921 to 1957 and related these changes to socio-economic
changes.

Amin
(2005) has argued that increasing female labor force participation in
Bangladesh has been due to better enumeration of women’s home based economic
activities. The major focus of the paper is on the factors associated with
women’s participation in paid employment. The study obtained the results that  women 
who  are  heads 
of  households, have a
smaller  family  and 
less  education,  live 
in  urban areas and have less
wealth are more likely to engage in paid work. The number of children below age
five has an insignificant impact while microcredit borrowing has a positive
impact. The only problem is related to the interpretation of the impact of education,
which actually is similar to the wealth impact. Both may, again, be due to the
fact that paid work is actually a combination of regular salaried employment
and daily employment.

A study by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and ILO
(2011) looked at the labour market situation in Asian countries and especially
highlighted the impact of the global financial crisis, which engulfed the
industrial economies since 2008. Although it does not analyze the Bangladesh
situation separately, some of the policy conclusions for South Asia region can
be very relevant for this country. The 
study highlighted  that  gender 
inequalities  are  rooted 
not  only  in 
social  and  cultural 
norms  but  are 
also deeply entrenched in the policy focus and institutional
environment.

 

Rahman and Islam (2013) stated that female wage is
observed to be only two thirds of the male wage. The ratios are similar for
rural and urban areas. The female to male ratio for monthly salary of employees
is much lower than the ratio of daily wage. Gender differential of wage consists  of 
three  factors,  gender 
segmentation  of  occupation, 
differences  in  endowment 
and  pure discrimination, which is
linked to the lower bargaining power of female workers.

Khandker
(1987) observes that the higher the education of a woman, the higher is the
opportunity cost of not producing cash income and the higher is the probability
that she participates in market work. Husband’s education has a negative
effect. Similarly, increase in female wage reduces the probability of women’s
home production.

Majumdar
and Begum (2000) draw on a combination of survey data and published studies on
the RMG sector employment. The 
papers  provide  information 
on  work  environment 
and  the  extent 
of  gender differences in the
terms of employment. The studies report that women employed in the RMG sector have
a lower mean average age compared to their male counterpart. The average age of
women in the latest survey was 20.4 years compared to 25 years for male workers
in the sample. According to GoB (2006), safety in case of fire and for other
hazards has been documented in Bangladesh Labor Act.

Ahmed
(1981) has stated on the aggregate level of rural labor supply. He said that rural
unemployment is not involuntary largely prevalent among family workers of
middle and rich farm households. Landless and land-poor wage workers do not
remain unemployed even for a few days, except during natural calamities when
crops and employment potentials are lost. Hossain (1996) argues that since the
rural people in Bangladesh live in village generation after generation, they
know how to adopt and cope with the vulnerable situation. The author says that
the rural people have developed various income and employment smoothing
mechanisms through which they can manage to remain employed. Over the year
landlessness and near-landlessness is gradually increasing while it is neither
a necessary nor a sufficient condition for rural poverty.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Findings of the study 100

Bangladesh
is a labor surplus country. So, if the policy and legislation are intensive for
human resource, then the economic growth will be faster. The findings from
different factors are given below:

4.1 Comparison
between age and knowledge, skill as well as ability (KSA)

The figure 4.1 shows that, at the age of 20-25, human resource
has low knowledge, skill, ability (KSA) compared to the human resource (HR) at
age of 26-30. Moreover, human resource at above 30 has highest KSA among
others. That is why, it can be said that,

Ø  At
age of 20-25, human resource starts to gather it’s KSA

Ø 
At age of 26-30, human resource gathers average
knowledge and skill. But it has high potential ability than others.

Ø  At
age of 30-45, human resource gathers so high knowledge and skill. But it has
low potential ability than compared to others. 

 

 

 

 

Figure
4.1: The comparative picture between Age and KSA

4.2 Descriptive Statistics of different factors
of human resource supply

 The table 4.1 represents a summary picture of some indicators such
as education
level of respondent, wage satisfaction level, training necessity of human
resource, knowledge, skill and ability of human resource and importance of
human resource. From this table, it can be said that the mean of education
level is in between S. S. C. and H. S. C. and it could fluctuate ± 1.15.  In addition, satisfaction level by wage is
about to negative.  Furthermore, the training
necessity of human resource is very much needed that will increase the
knowledge, skill and ability of human resource.

             Table 4.1:
Descriptive Statistics

Factors

Sample

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation
 

Education Level of Respondent

50

1.00

4.00

2.8400

1.14927

Wage Satisfaction Level

50

1.00

2.00

1.9000

.46291

Training Necessity HR

50

1.00

2.00

1.1000

.32826

Knowledge, Skill and Ability of HR

50

1.00

2.00

1.1200

.37033

Importance of HR

50

1.00

2.00

1.0600

.23990

Valid N (list wise)

50

 

 

 

 

 

4.3 Relation
between timely payment and turnover

The comparative picture between timely payment and turnover rate is
presented in figure 4.2. From the above graph it can be stated that these two
factors have inverse relation where due time payment refers to decreased
turnover such as when timely payment is 55% then turnover rate is only 14%. On
the other hand, if the due time payment is not met then turnover rate will
decrease such as when timely payment is 18% then turnover rate is 48%.

Figure 4.2: The comparative picture between timely payment and turnover rate

4.4 Comparative analysis
among supportive relation with colleague and expected working hours and production

 

In figure
4.3, it shows that production will be high when there is supportive relation
with colleague and working hour is near about 8 hours. On the contrary, the
less supportive relation with colleague and more working hour leads to low
production, that won’t be supportive to any for the organization as well as for
the whole economy.        

 

Figure
4.3: The comparative picture among supportive
relation with colleague and expected working hours and production

 

4.5 The comparison among satisfactory working
environment and expected working hours and safety of female human resource

 

In figure
4.4, it shows that existing working environment and working hour have direct
relationship with female human resource’s safety. The more human resource is
satisfied with working hour and working environment, the more safety level of
the female resource will be ensured. On the other hand, any risk related to
safety will decrease the development of organizational or industrial growth.

 

 

Figure
4.4: The comparative picture among satisfactory working
environment and expected working hours and safety of female human resource

 

4.6 The Pearson correlation among
different factors of labor supply in Bangladesh

The
Pearson correlation between timely payment and trade union is -.403 that
implies the variables change in the opposite direction. The two asterisks
indicate that degree of confidence is high. On the contrary, Pearson
correlation between the policy of bonus, increment allowance
and standard wage for living is 0.117 that greater than 0.01. So, relation
between policy of bonus, increment allowance and standard wage for living
change in same direction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.2: Correlations among
different factors of labor supply in Bangladesh

Factors

 

Trade Union Right

Standard Wage for Living

Timely Payment of HR

Policy of Bonus, Increment Allowance

Satisfaction on Working Environment

Trade Union Right

Pearson Correlation

1

.063

-.403**

-.215

-.096

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.664

.004

.133

.506

N

50

50

50

50

50

Standard Wage for
Living

Pearson Correlation

.063

1

.083

.117

.177

Sig. (2-tailed)

.664

 

.567

.418

.219

N

50

50

50

50

50

Timely Payment of HR

Pearson Correlation

-.403**

.083

1

.268

-.027

Sig. (2-tailed)

.004

.567

 

.060

.853

N

50

50

50

50

50

Policy of Bonus,
Increment Allowance

Pearson Correlation

-.215

.117

.268

1

-.256

Sig. (2-tailed)

.133

.418

.060

 

.073

N

50

50

50

50

50

Satisfaction on
Working Environment

Pearson Correlation

-.096

.177

-.027

-.256

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.506

.219

.853

.073

 

N

50

50

50

50

50

**. Correlation is
significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Recommendations of the study

Based on
the findings of this study the following recommendations for human resource supply
in Bangladesh are made:

1.     
More
training and other development activities have to arrange to increase
knowledge, skill as well as ability of human resource.

2.     
Satisfaction level by wage has to increase for human resource
supply.

3.     
Timely
payment has to ensure for decreasing the turnover rate of human resource
supply.

4.     
Supportive
relation with colleague and
expected working hours have to ensure to increase a production level.

5.     
Satisfactory
working environment and expected working hours and safety of female human
resource have to ensure.

6.     
The
organizations and industries have to ensure the trade union’s right for human resource.