DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING

DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING : It is a model in which components of a software system are shared among multiple computers to improve efficiency and performance.
According to the narrowest of definitions, distributed computing is limited to programs with components shared among computers within a limited geographic area. Broader definitions include shared tasks as well as program components. In the broadest sense of the term, distributed computing just means that something is shared among multiple systems which may also be in different locations.
In the enterprise, distributed computing has often meant putting various steps in business processes at the most efficient places in a network of computers. For example, in the typical distribution using the 3-tier model, user interface processing is performed in the PC at the user’s location, business processing is done in a remote computer, and database access and processing is conducted in another computer that provides centralized access for many business processes. Typically, this kind of distributed computing uses the client/Server communications model.
The Distributed Computing Environment is a widely-used industry standard that supports this kind of distributed computing. On the Internet, third party service providers now offer some generalized services that fit into this model. SAT is an enterprise system which falls under the distributed computing.
A well-developed distributed system software provides the illusion of a single and integrated environment although it is actually implemented by multiple computers in different locations transparency.

Grid Computing is a computing model involving a distributed design of large numbers of computers connected to solve a complex problem. In the grid computing architecture, personal computers or servers run independent tasks and are loosely linked by the Internet or low-speed networks. Individual participants may allow some of their computer’s processing time to be put at the service of a large problem. This computer-intensive problem uses thousands of PCs to download and search radio telescope data.
There is quite a great deal of discrepancy over the difference between distributed computing and grid computing. In my candid opinion, grid computing is just one type of distributed computing.
Grids are a form of distributed computing whereby a “super virtual computer” is composed of many networked loosely coupled computers acting together to perform large tasks.

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PARALLEL COMPUTING is a type of computing architecture in which several processors execute or process an application or computation simultaneously. Parallel computing helps in performing large computations by dividing the workload between more than one processor, all of which work through the computation at the same time. Most supercomputers employ parallel computing principles to operate. The primary objective of parallel computing is to increase the available computation power for faster application processing or task resolution. Typically, parallel computing infrastructure is housed within a single facility where many processors are installed in a server rack or separate servers are connected together.
Parallel computing is also known as parallel processing

CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud Computing is where an application doesn’t access resources directly but access it via Service. So instead of talking to a specific hard drive for storage, and a specific CPU for computation, etc. it talks to some service that provides these resources.
So the delivery of computing services – servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics and more – over the Internet (“the cloud”) is what can be referred to as CLOUT COMPUTING
Cloud computing is a big shift from the traditional way businesses think about IT resources.
Companies offering these computing services are called cloud providers and typically charge for cloud computing services based on usage, similar to how you’re billed for gas or electricity at home.