Discussion effect on this cancer. Pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone compound was

Discussion

In previous
studies were reported, one causes of cancer is a defect in cell cycle and
resistance to apoptosis. One of the treatments for cancer is induced the
apoptosis to cancer cells, in other words, the most anticancer drugs do their
effect by inducing apoptosis.

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One ways of
cancer therapy is chemotherapy so much effort is made to find new drugs with
less side effects and more efficacy 13. Thiosemicarbazones a class of N,
S-donor ligands 11, many applications of this family have been investigated
such as antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoal and cytotoxic
effects 14.

Meta- and para- nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazones were tested on
Adenocarcinoma 755, and then showed these compounds have antitumor effect on
this cancer. Pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone compound was found to
have antitumor effect on several lines of experimental leukemia 12. In this
study, the tests were evaluated the antitumor of the metylthiosemicarbazon
complex with Zn2+ on the K562 cell line. In morphological studies performed by optical
microscope and fluorescence microscope using acridine and orange…; it was observed that the
treated cells in this combination exhibited major morphological changes, such
as chromatin condensation and nucleation fragmentation, in comparison to untreated cells. In
this coloring, the viable cells with a natural ???? are uniformly green
with an organized structure but the cells are in early apoptosis have bright green and show some
signs of nucleation
fragmentation, whereas the late apoptotic cells exhibited orange color because
they have passed EtBr. DNA ladder assay confirmed morphological studies. DNA fragmentation is one symptom
of apoptosis. Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) is a protein that causes DNA
fragmentation in nuclei
during apoptosis. In normal cells CAD is inhabited by ICAD (inhibitor of CAD)
but when the process of apoptosis starts, it can trigger the caspase cascade so
caspase 3 downstream of the cascade cleaves ICAD and inactivates its
CAD-inhibitory activity. Finally, the CAD released
has gone to the nucleus
then degrades chromosomal DNA. DNA fragmentation is analyzed by agarose gel
electrophoresis to confirm apoptosis induction in the metylthiosemicarbazon
complex with Zn2+ treated cells Fig.