Charles Robert Darwin, the biologist, the psychologists, philosophist, founder of evolutionism who put forward the doctrine of biological evolution, which destroys all kinds of idealistic theology and species invariance.
The idea of a gradual and continuous change in all species of plants and animals was expressed by many scientists long before Darwin. But it was Darwin who put forward a completely new hypothesis regarding living nature, generalizing individual evolutionary ideas into one, the so-called theory of evolution, which was the most widely spread in the world.
He published ” The Origin of Species by Natural Selection” in 1859. It should be noted that despite the huge popularity among the reading public, the idea of a gradual appearance in the living nature of new species for the scientific community of the time turned out to be so unusual that it was not accepted immediately.
Darwin suggested that in competition among animal populations, only those will survive that have properties of benefits under given specific conditions, allowing producing offspring as well. His theory is based on three principles: a) heredity and variability; b) the struggle for existence; c) natural selection.
Variability is an inalienable property of all living things. Despite the similarity of living organisms of the same species, two completely identical individuals cannot be found within the population. This variation of features and properties creates the advantage of some organisms over others.
A certain variability , or adaptive modification, is the ability of individuals of one species to react in an identical way to changes in the environment. Such group changes are not inherited, so they can not supply material for evolution..
The core principle of natural selection has the following implications: Organisms have a tendency to overproduce while living space and food are limited, so that creatures must “fight for survival.” Variants exist in individuals within the same population, and individuals with favorable variations that adapt to the environment will survive and multiply offspring, while individuals without favorable variability will be eliminated. His natural selection principle is based on the prevailing “fusion genetic” hypothesis at that time
However The “modern” theory of evolution – the synthetic theory of evolution (STE), based on the synthesis of Darwin’s theory of natural selection with Mendel’s genetics, proves that mutations are the cause of variability – abrupt changes in the hereditary structure of the organism that occur randomly do not solve the problem either.
The question arises after so many years of the discovery that whether the theory of evolution is the only logical explanation for the development of life?
Evolution is the buildout of life. Recognition that evolution is taking place is the only logical explanation for the observed regularities of modern biological diversity, which is also confirmed by the paleontological chronicle and embryological data. The theory of evolution is an explanation of the mechanisms of evolution, there can be many theories of evolution. At the moment, the theory of natural selection (or rather, the synthetic theory of evolution as the “successor” of Darwinian) is the only theory that meets the criteria of scientificity – verifiability and falsifiability: on the basis of this theory, hypotheses can be constructed that are empirically tested, and there is the likelihood of their experimental refutation.