CHAPTER to a main destination outside his/her usual environment

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY.

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Tourism is defined as the activities of persons identified as visitors. A visitor is someone who makes a visit to a main destination outside his/her usual environment for less than one consecutive year for any purpose including holidays, leisure and recreation, business purposes, health, education or other related reasons. The scope according to the World Tourism Organization of Tourism is much wider than the traditional perception of tourists, which included only those travelling for leisure. (UNWTO statistics Guidelines: 2010). 

Tourism is the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, it also relates to the activities undertaken during their study in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needs. (Mathieson and Wall, 1982).

Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors. (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).

Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country’s balance of payment (income and expenditure). Today, tourism is a major source of income and employment in both developed and developing countries. Tourism affects also the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance. Tourism has become a phenomenon in both developed and developing economies across the globe owing partly to bizarre of income generation, employment creation and poverty elimination potentials; and exploring development variables associated with the intangible products (Andriotis et al., 2008; Meng et al., 2008).

The strength of tourism development is obvious in solving social economic problems such as increased standard of living, poverty reduction, employment generation and income redistribution effect on an economy (Abdul Kadir, & Aliyu, 2013).

Tourism has developed a large economic impact on all sphere of the society to become one of the fastest growing industries globally. Tourism has become one of the major players in ?international commerce, and represents at the same time one of the main income ?sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an ?increasing diversification and competition among destinations?. This spread of tourism in developed states has produced ?economic and employment benefits in many related sectors – from construction to ?agriculture or telecommunications. ?(UNWTO statistics Guidelines: 2010).

The economic relevance of tourism is remarkable, the UNWTO—the United Nations World Tourism Organization (2010) estimates that tourism is roughly 9 % of the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 8 % of world employment. Nevertheless, measuring the economic contribution of tourism in a national economy is not an easy task. There are statistical issues which need to be discussed, particularly related to the definition and the classification of concepts linked to both the demand and the supply side of tourism. (Candela G & Figini P, 2012)

In order to explore these numerous potentials that are present in the tourism industry, many countries because of its multiplier effect on the sectors of the economy, creating large volume of job for both skilled and unskilled labor (Ayeni & Eboho, 2012).

The impacts of tourism are felt in a nation socially, environmentally and economically. At the society’s level, the benefits run across peasants, artisans and even professionals irrespective of gender, race or age bracket. Environmentally, tourism has the potentials to conserve the natural environment, maintaining antiquities, historical artifacts and traditional ways of life including culture, food, languages spoken, heritage passed on through generations, arts and crafts. Etc. Economically, tourism creates wealth capable of stimulating both domestic foreign earning of any nation from associated businesses or direct activities (NTDMP, 2006).

Nigeria has her first international tourists in 1472, when Portuguese merchants came to Nigeria, apparently in search of trade. There are also historical records of Trans-Saharan and caravan movements. Since then, the tourism industry has continued to show appreciable growth in the country. (Bankole, 2013).

In 1962, the Government established the Nigerian Tourist Association (NTA) and charged it with the responsibility of promoting domestic and international tourism in the country. Tourism as an economic activity came to Nigeria in the Military regimes with the decision of the Olusegun Obasanjo’s determination and subsequent decree No. 54 of 1976 establishing the Nigeria Tourism Board (NTB) to tap into the natural resources of the country (Bola, 2010).

The Tourism board of Nigeria was later transformed through a decree NO. 86 of 1991 to bear the name, Nigeria’s Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC) providing it with a preferred sector status. The Nigeria’s Tourism Development Corporation is responsible for tourism in Nigeria and it promotes the country as a domestic and international tourist destination. Tourism development suffered during the military regime and has been recovering with the rise of democracy. Through the establishment of the Nigeria’s Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC), the Government has repositioned tourism to take a prominent position in the diversification of economic agenda. The Government captured tourism among the six top priority areas and engaged domestic and stakeholders including UNWTO and UNESCO to prepare a comprehensive National Tourism Development Master Plan (NTDMP) in 2006. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism organized in 2005 included the 1st Abuja carnival as part of her promotional efforts to showcase the rich heterogeneous culture of the most populous African Nation. Government through the ministry packaged Abuja carnival to draw the attention of the world to visit Nigeria and have a feel of both natural and manmade features in its original form and since then, Abuja carnival has become an annual major event witnessed by tourists within Africa and beyond for a whole week usually held within the last quarter of the year (Yaradua, 2006).

The total world tourism export was US $265 billion in 1989 and rose by almost 100% in 1998 to US $508.9 billion. Nigeria’s share was only US $6 million in 1989 rising to US $25 million in 1994 to US $81 million in 1998. These translate to a share of 0.002%, 0.006%, 0.015% in those years. (Abiodun B, 2002).

The tourism industry as defined by Inskeep (1991) gives a clear cut distinction of the components of the travel and tourism industry, which is a fundamental base of this research study. The UNWTO’s (1999) definition of the travel industry which defined the industry as the composition of organization both public and private that are involved in the development, production, distribution and marketing or products and services to serve the needs of the travelers. (Munzali A, 2011)

Nigeria which is amongst the most privileged nations of the world has so much attractions which include mountains, hills and highlands; caves and valleys (with waterfall and water tributaries) spectacular vegetation (dense high forest, savannah and Sahel). The Tourism industry is growing at a respectable rate of 7.2% in Africa per year and this number has the potential to be much higher. (Munzali, 2011­).

Nigeria is endowed with diverse natural and manmade tourism resources, Smith (2007) argues that economic benefits of tourism is a function of destination image and facilities that will promote positive words of mouth and revisit intentions by tourists.

Various types of attractions are present basically in every of the thirty-six (36) state in Nigeria (Eja et al., 2012). Some of this attractions are natural while others are manmade. Some are developed with others are partly developed.

        I.            Eco Tourism: Tourism related to natural resources. Nigeria as a whole support more than 274 different species of animal, about 831 species of birds and also about 4600 species of plants.

a.      Yankari National Park

b.      Kainji Lake National Park, Adamawa/Taraba

c.       Gashaka/Gumti National Park, Adamawa/Taraba State

d.      Old Oyo National Park, Oyo State

e.      Chad Basin National Park, Borno State

f.        Cross River National Park, Cross River State

g.      Jos Wildlife Park, Plateau State

h.      Hadejia/Nguru Wetland and Birds Sanctuary, Edo State

i.        Okomu Wildlife Sanctuary, Edo State

j.        Lekki Conservation Centre, Lagos State

k.       Drill Ranch, Cross River State.

 

      II.            Beach Tourism: This tourism is related to coastline and inland waterways. Nigeria has approximately 400km of Atlantic beachfront while some sizeable portions are polluted by the oil in the oil producing areas. Examples include

a.      Bar Beach, Lagos State

b.      Badagry Beach, Lagos State

c.       Takwa Beach, Lagos State

d.      Aiyetoro Maiyegun Beach, Lagos State

e.      Eleko Beach, Lagos State

f.        Lekki Peninsula, Lagos State

g.      Port Harcourt Tourist Beach, Rivers State

h.      Ibeno Beach, Akwa Ibom State

i.        Nwaniba Beach, Akwa Ibom State

j.        Uta Ewa Beach, Akwa Ibom State

k.       James Town Beach, Akwa Ibom State

l.        Calabar Beach, Cross River State.

 

    III.            Natural/Physical Attractions: These include spectacular physical, geographical formulation or features such as:

Ø  FALLS:

a.      Assop Falls, Plateau State

b.      Gurara Falls, Niger State

c.       Owu Falls, Kwara State

d.      Matsirga Waterfall, Kaduna State

e.      Erin Ijesha Water Falls, Osun State.

f.        Kwa Falls, Cross River State

g.      Agbokim Waterfall, Cross River State

h.      Jeffy Falls, Borno State

i.        Farin Ruwa Water Falls, Wamba Nassarawa State.

Ø  ROCK FORMATIONS

a.      Olumo Rock, Ogun State

b.      Zuma Rock, Niger State

c.       Shere Hills, Plateau State

d.      Riyom Rock, Plateau State

e.      Oke Maria, Ondo State

f.        Aso Rock, Federal Capital Territory

Ø  HILLS/ HIGHLANDS

a.      Mambila Plateau, Taraba State

b.      Obudu Cattle Rank, Cross River State

c.       Idanre Hills, Ondo State

Ø  CAVES/TUNNELS

a.      Marshall Caves, Yankari, Bauchi State

b.      Kwantarwoshi Cave, Zamfara State

c.       Ogbunike Cave, Anambra State

Ø  SPRINGS

a.      Ikogosi Warm Spring, Ekiti State

b.      Wikki Warm Spring, Yankari, Bauchi State.

 

    IV.             MAN MADE ATTRACTIONS: These are tourist attractions created by man’s ingenuity and they include the following:

Ø  THEME (AMUSEMENT) PARK

a.      Trans Amusement park, Ibadan, Oyo

b.      Water Parks, Ikeja, Lagos State

c.       Frankid Amusement Park, Festac Town, Lagos State

d.      Hills and Valleys Amusement Park, D’Kudu, Kano State

Ø  RESORTS/HEALTH FARMS

a.      Whispering Palms, Iworo-Badagry, Lagos State

b.      International Youth Tourism Centre, Kurra Falls, Plateau

c.       Seam Health Farm, Idiriki, Ogun State

d.      Murtala Mohammed Betonical Garden, Lagos

e.      Helena Farms, Jos

f.        Rojeny Tourism Village, Oba Anambra State

g.      Chama Park, Jibiya Katsina

h.      Abuja Gardens, Abuja

Ø  ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS

a.      U.I. Zoological Gardens, Ibadan

b.      Audu Bako Zoo, Kano

c.       Jos Zoo

d.      O.A. University Zoo, Ile-Ife.

 

      V.            CULTURAL TOURISM: These are tourism activities based on culture and religious beliefs. Festivals, celebration and dances are an important aspect of Nigerian customs and tradition. Some of these are:

Ø  FESTIVALS

a.      Argungu Fishing Festival, Kebbi State

b.      Osun/Oshogbo Festival, Osun State

c.       Kano/Katsina Durbars

d.      Mmanwu Festivals Enugu/Anambra State

e.      Ikeja Festival, Arondizuogo, Imo State

f.        Ovia Oseso Festival, Ogoni Mangogo, Kogi State

g.      Sharo Festival of the Fulani’s, Northern State

h.      Awon Mass Wedding, Shao, Kwara State

i.        Eyo Festival, Lagos State

j.        Igue Festival, Benin-City, Edo State

Ø  MUSEUMS AND MONUMENTS:

a.      Owo Museum, Ondo

b.      National Museum, Lagos

c.       National War Museum, Abia

d.      Ife Museum, Ile-ife

e.      Jos Museum

f.        Museum of Natural History, Owerre

g.      Gidan Makama Museum, Kano

h.      National Museum, Benin City

i.        Oro-Esie Stone Image, Kwara State

j.        Nok Terra Cota, Kaduna

k.       Gobirau Minaret, Katsina

Ø  PALACES:

a.      Emir of Kano’s Palace

b.      Emir of Zaria’s Palace

c.       Ooni’s Palace Ile Ife

d.      Iga Idungaran (Oba’s Palace) Lagos

e.      Alaafin of Oyo’s Palace

f.        Erediauwa’s (Oba of Benin) Palace

Ø  ARTS AND CRAFTS:

a.      Naraguta Leather Works, Jos

b.      Igun Bronze Casting, Benin City

c.       Kofar Mater Dyeing Pits, Kano

d.      Calbash Carving, Owodo-Oyo, Oyo State

e.      Brass Works, Bida, Niger State

f.        Adire Cloths (Itoko) Abeokuta

g.      Mat weaving, Osun

h.      Aso Oke Weaving, Iseyin, Oyo State

i.        Akwete Weaving Centre, Abia.

Source: (Fed. Min. Culture of Tourism for Nigeria).

The slave trade history is perhaps one of the most significant history of Nigeria and the history of African. The Nigerian slave route identifies the main routes used for the shipment of slaves from West Africa to the world. (Munzali A, 2011)

Portuguese explorers settled in Nigeria in the 15th century after it was discovered by the Europeans. They starting the slave trade business and the success of this business therefore brought about the interest of other foreign traders such as the Dutch, British and other European commercialists who joined the business. Proof has it that Nigerian slaves were important in evolving of America to Cuba and other Caribbean Countries down to Brazil. (Munzali A, 2011)

The Nigerian slave trade route would be of great interest to tourist, adventurers and historians. It would be also of great because it proves how Nigerians are spread all over the entire world. (NTDMP, 2006). This probably lead to the wide spread of young footballers in British countries who are now been chased by the Nigerian Football Federation.

Historical events such as the exploring of the River Niger by Mungo Park and Richard Lemon lander who both died in their exploration also lead to the exposition of Nigeria to the world. Also, Mary Slessor who stopped the killing of twins who were thought to be possessed with evil spirits. She also in the (second half of the 17th century) removed the agenda of women been treated inferior “than cattle” in the society especially in the Eastern regions of the country. (Munzali A, 2011)

According to Tunde (2012), the only way to realize the important roles of tourism is through development, packaging and promotion of tourist centers.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS.

As for the Tourism sector as an industry in the Nigerian Economy, there is no argument that it has abundant of resources that can be diversified to positively affect the standard of living of the general population. The development of oil lead to the neglecting of other economic sectors like tourism. Non-oil producing countries determine the world price of oil in the international market and this they do to the advantage of major producers in the world of developing countries. The over reliance on the oil sector as the most prominent sector has made the rate of economic growth in the country slow. This also leads to inefficiencies in the management of resources. Several of the tourist attractions in the economy have great potentials and the few once developed are faced with the problem of being sustainable which is necessary for pursuing economic growth. The performance of the Tourism sector is nowhere close to turning the economy into a foreign exchange earner. Other significant problems are

                    I.            The state of infrastructure as well as publicity and marketing

                  II.            Poor planning of the tourism sector 

                III.            poor implementation of tourism plans

                IV.             General economic problems such as insecurity, the lack of adequate technological and infrastructural development.

                  V.            Visa restriction from international embassies (international political conditions)

                VI.            The fear of hazards causing danger and disasters to tourists.

              VII.            The general lack of commitment by citizens towards tourism.

1.3   STATEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES.

The main objective of this study is to create awareness of how much tourism has the ability to solve the general social economic problem in the economy such as low par capital income, poverty, unemployment, if tourism development and maintenance can be paid much more attention to by the ruling authorities leading to economic growth.

other objective of this study are:

                    I.            To analyze the economic problems affecting tourism.

                  II.            To measure how tourism positively affect per-capital income, unemployment, poverty and economic malaise.

                III.            To determine how infrastructural development, maintenance and adequate technological development improves the tourism industry.

 

1.4   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS.

The following hypothesis is being formulated to guide the study

H0:       Tourism development has no impact on economic growth in Nigeria.

H1:       Tourism development has an impact on economic growth in Nigeria.

 

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTION.

        I.            What effect could tourism bring on economic growth in Nigeria?

      II.            How could infrastructural and technological development be improved in the economy?

    III.            What actions do other economies take that promotes their tourism sector?

    IV.            How can tourism be promoted thereby affecting economic growth?

      V.            What are the economies that benefit best from their tourism sector?

 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

This research provides insight into the necessity of tourism as a mean of improving economic growth and will therefore be of valuable use to the following set of people.

          I.             To students, it will provide insight on career opportunities and creative thinking in tourism.

        II.             To tourists, it will show the important attractions in Nigeria.

      III.             To the ordinary readers, this work will serve as an eye opener and a valuable store of knowledge.

      IV.             To the government, it will show clearly the importance for the allocation of economic resources to various tourist attractions in the economy.

 

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

 The research work covers the effect of tourism on economic growth from (1996-2016). It estimates tourism among other economic sectors as a very important industry in the economy that will affect the social economic life of people that are faced with poverty, unemployment, low per capital income and places emphasis on that fact that growth can occur if the tourism potential resources are identified, harnessed, developed and packaged into a tourist product. 

 

 

 

 

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