Chapter – 1INTRODUCTION1.1 GENERALTransparent concrete or light transmitting or translucent concrete is a concrete which transmitting light through it by using optical fiber. It is material which makes green building.Conventional concrete made with the mixture of cement sand aggregate and water which are unable to transmit lights, transparent concrete is made with cement, very fine sand and thousand of optical fiber strand along the width of wall or concrete blocks which transmit the light. The density of transparent concrete is less as compare to conventional concrete. Translucent concrete is used in fine architecture as a façade material and for cladding of interior walls. Light-transmitting concrete has also been applied to various design products.Just a few decades ago concrete was often misunderstood, disliked and captured by its image fixed due to the rapid urbanization of the1960s. But since that time, concrete has made considerable progress, not only in technical terms, but also in aesthetic terms. It is no longer the heavy, cold and grey material of the past; it has become gorgeous and lively. By research and innovation, newly developed concrete has been created which is more resistant, lighter, white or colored, etc. Concrete has learned to adapt to almost all new challenges thatappeared. In 2001, the concept of transparent concrete was first put forward by Hungarian architect AronLosonzi, and the first transparent concrete block was successfully twisted by mixing large amount of glass fiber into concrete in 2003, named as LiTraCon. Joel S. and Sergio O.G. developed a transparent concrete material, which can allow 80% light through and only 30% of weight of common concrete. The term “translucent concrete” has the potential to be somewhat misleading. The concrete itself is not translucent, nor is it any different to conventional concrete. Translucent concrete has been first mentioned in a 1935 Canadian patent. But since the development of optical glass fibers and polymer based optical fibers the rate of inventions and developments in this field has drastically increased. There have also been inventions that apply this concept to more technical applications like fissure detection. In the early 1990s forms like translucent concrete products popular today with fine & layered patterns were developed. Concrete is one component of a revolutionary new material marketed as “translucent concrete”. Engineering has come a long way in the field of construction. When many buildings are stacked close to each other, there is not much natural sunlight passing through and the importance of natural sunlight is pretty well known. In fact, 50% day lighting is a mandatory requirement in a green building according to (IGBC) Indian Green Building Council accounting for 3 credits. A concrete block is going to be built with optical fibres in it and going to be tested for other optional properties. But the main reason or purpose of the blocks is saving energy using natural light and therefore reducing the amount of heat produced from artificial light. In Light-transmitting concrete, which is also known as translucent concrete, optical fiber’s strands are cast into the concrete to transmit light, by either naturally or artificially through translucent panels. This material can be used in a wide range of architectural and interior design. building energy saving and building safety have been attracted much attention. While the translucent concrete mainly focuses on transparency and its objective of application pertains to green technology and artistic finish.1.2 OBJECT AND SCOPE OF THE IVESTIGATIONOBJECTIVE- 1. To cast a special type of concrete with light transmitting properties.2. To study development in performance of concrete in light transmission by using optical fiber and improve performance of structure to derive natural light.3. To make concrete partially transparent by using optical fibers in it to impart good appearance to structure.4. To study cost effectiveness of this high performance concrete.5. To study Energy saving for illumination by using transparent block for building.FUTURE SCOPE -In recent past concretes were considered a structural member only, but the concept of concrete has changed today. Innovative and smart building material like light transmitting concrete have come up in which concrete can be used as a decorative material. It can be observed that the concrete with light transmitting property shows increase instrength and also provides a pleasing appearance to concrete. Thus this project aims in making concrete stronger, attractive, energy efficient and eco-friendly green buildingmaterial. In fact, 50% day lighting is a mandatory requirement in a green building according to (IGBC) Indian Green Building Council. In coming future the light transmitting concretewould be more economical as the production cost of optical fiber will be minimized. Several years ago, the material was featured in the “Liquid Stone” exhibit at the National Building Museum, and started opening peoples’ eyes to all kinds of possibilities. While the material has distinct architectural and interior design appeal, some of the companies involved in light-transmitting concrete production envision using the distinct looks and unique abilities of this concrete for practical applications. Although translucent concrete has been used primarily as an interior decoration, its creators have “visions of cities that glow from within, and buildings whose windows need not be flat, rectangular panes, but can be arbitrary regions of transparency within flowing, curving walls”. It can at the same time be building material and light source, can separate and connect, can be wall or floor, ambient lighting or eye-catcher. Translucent concrete is also a great insulating material that protects against outdoor extreme temperatures while also letting in daylight. This makes it an excellent compromise for buildings in harsh climates, where it can shut out heat or cold without shutting the building off from daylight. It can be used to illuminate underground buildings and structures, such as subway stations & arranging of translucent concrete in zero energy buildings.