Changing economies or implement concepts like cradle-to-cradle concepts in

Changing the business modelTransforming input into output with a higher value  and various Rs, such as recycling, repair, refurbishing, reclaim, and reverse logisticsConnecting SCM with the natural environment by connecting the extraction of raw materials, the created waste by the process model, the input of energy and water, and regenerative processes to restore the natural environmentEnvironmental impact measured through Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) by assessing material and energy flows through life-cycle inventory analysis (LCI) and its impact through life-cycle impact analysis (LCIA)Application of Industry 4.0Data gathered throughout life cycle of a product that is smart, hasnt lead to a significant change in the adopting more sustainable productsRicher in content, faster, higher quality, customized, more efficient and more accurate, Industry 4.0 does not explicitly tackle sustainability issuesSustainability is often only implicitly tackled when sustainable benefits also have an economical benefits.Reflection on the business modelCustomers manier times do not see the product durability as an environmental concern. It is not expected that the very small part of the consumer population which buys green product will grow drastically in upcoming years.Straightforward way to monitor and reduce need for raw materials and to make them recoverable can be done through offering durable products that are particularly designed for recyclability, disassembly, maintainability, refurbishability, and reusabilityChallenges for products that will sustain longer in time than substituteproducts will be:Long-term relations between company, customer, and product end-of-lifeSustainable business model value proposition to compete with neoclassical business models on a large scaleApplication of smart factories to facilitate remanufacturing, recycling  and reduction in need for non-renewable resources is a solution                       Creating a sustainable value system which promises  larger market share is challenging. Circular economies or implement concepts like cradle-to-cradle concepts in which products are recycled and re-used such that no new materials are needed in the subsequent new products. Realization of circular economies thinking, face immense theoretical and practical problems.