Author: part of the novel, Paul encounters Russian prisoners.

Author: Erich Maria RemarqueFought in WW1.His time in the war inspired him to write All Quiet on the Western Front.After the war he became a stonecutter in the cemetery of Osnabruck.Point-of-View: First person narrative”And of the fourth, myself, Paul Baumer”This proves that the book is written in first person narrative because of the way Paul Baumer references himself in the novel. The novel focuses on the story of Paul and the traumas he had to face during the first world war. Setting: 1914- 1918 in Europe during World War One”The Prussian is not so generous. We have only a miscalculation to thank for it”This quotation shows that the characters in the story were near the country of Prussia.Character:    Protagonist:     Paul Baumer Quotation (Beginning) “We have lost all sense of other considerations, because they are artificial. Only the facts are real and important for us. And good boots are scarce.” Character technique: ThoughtTrait: Unfeeling:  insensitive, uncaringExplanation: Because of the war, it has changed the view Paul has on life. He does not are about his dying friend, he only cares about Kemmerich’s new boots. Paul Baumer Quotation (Middle)”I take out my cigarettes, break each one in half and give them to the Russians.”  Character technique:Interaction with othersTrait: Sympathetic: able to feel sorry for the character Explanation:  In this part of the novel, Paul encounters Russian prisoners. He sees how              skinny and lifeless they look. Paul starts to sympathize with his own enemies and ends up giving them cigarettes Paul Baumer Quotation (End)    “We are little flames poorly sheltered by frail walls against the storm of dissolution and madness”Character technique: ThoughtsTrait: Philosophical: wise,thoughtfulExplanation: At the end of the novel Paul becomes more insightful about the things happening during the war. Antagonist The “romanticizing” of warQuotation #1″I can see him now, as he used to glare at us through his spectacles and say in a moving voice: “Won’t you join up, Comrades?”” Character technique: Interaction with othersTrait: Charismatic : able to win over othersExplanation: In this book the Kantorek wins his students over and convinces them all to  join the war, promising all these great things if they do join like honor and glory.Quotation #2″But my father would rather I kept my uniform on so that he could take me to visit his acquaintances.” Character technique: ThoughtsTrait: Prejudiced: narrow-mindedExplanation: Paul’s father falls victim to romanticizing war, he treats Paul being in the war as something honorable, that taking people’s lives is heroic. His father is adamant on showing off his son who killed many people. He only sees that his son is somewhat a hero Quotation #3″”Mind how you speak to a non-commissioned officer!” bawled Himmelstoss. “Have you lost your senses? You wait till you’re spoken to. What will you do, anyway?””Character technique: SpeechTrait: Condescending: looks down on othersExplanation: Himmelstoss love for power makes him a very disgusting person to be around. He treats his troops like dirt because he can.    Plot Outline:    ExpositionThe novel begins with Paul and his friends, Tjaden, Albert and Muller in the front lines.  Paul and company visits their wounded friend Kemmerich.Kemmerich dies and gives his boots to Müller.    Rising ActionThe men wait for Himelstoss at a pub, when he comes out drunk they hold him down and whips his butt with a switch.Paul and friends go on a mission with the new reinforcements to set-up protective fence wire on the fronts lines. On the way back from the mission, they get bombed by the enemy, they run into a graveyard for protectionThe men are brought to a field judge because of the incident with Himelstoss.    ClimaxPaul is given leave and he returns home, he comes home to his sick mother and his father waiting for heroic stories about the war. Paul feels like an outcast in the place he once called home. When he finally returns to the front, he regrets his decision of going back home.        DenouementIn the front lines, Paul kills a French soldier, he begins to regret the decision promising that he will write the dead soldiers family.The group is tasked to protect an abandoned village, Paul and his allies get bombed, many get injured. They get sent to a catholic hospital.Paul recovers from his injury and gets sent back into the front linesMüller gets shot to death, Kat gets shot in the leg but while Paul is carrying him he gets shot in the head.Paul gets killed in the front lines. Conflict:  Internal conflict (Paul vs himself)”I am frightened: I dare think this way no more. This way lies the abyss. It is not now the time but I will not lose these thoughts, I will keep them, shut them away until the war is ended.”In this part of the novel, Paul encounters Russian prisoners. The first instance of internal conflict occurs in this novel because, He realizes that he is killing people that do not deserve to be killed. He is killing people like himself. “How could you be my enemy? If we threw away these rifles and this uniform you could be my brother just like Kat and Albert.”    At this stage in the novel, Paul is conflicted,he is wondering why he is killing people. He begins to realize that he is killing people that he does not hate. Literary Technique:Symbolism – The boots Kemmerich’s boots symbolize  the eventual death of a character. Whoever puts the boots on they will die. Foreshadowing Stated before Kemmerich’s boots foreshadow the death of each soldier. Kemmerich gives the boots to Muller who gets shot to death. After Muller passes away Paul takes the boots and then he eventually gets shot.Metaphor”All Quiet on the Western Front” is on the report of Paul’s death. This can also be interpreted as Paul finally finding peace. As Paul’s body lies on the Western Front, he is finally relieved of the traumas, he can finally rest peacefully. Motif – War is terrible The motif that drives this novel is war is terrible. “This book is to be neither an accusation nor confession, and least of all and adventure for death is not an adventure to those who stand and face to face with it.” War is not about the heroics, glory and honor, as war truly is horrific.JuxtapositionThere is juxtaposition in this novel because the bombardment in the graveyard. Paul and company had to hide in coffins to save themselves from dying. This is juxtaposition because they are using something dead people are stored into to protect their lives.  Themes:The true horrors of war are not the battles fought, but the traumas caused by the them.     The war makes Paul become a machine, emotionless, devoid of life. It also brings Paul to a point where he cowers in fear during the war War can change the value of humanity     In this story the war changes the perspective of the boys who fight in the war. It is evident because at the start of the book Kemmerich is on his deathbed and all they can think about is his shiny new boots