Anti-Federalists: The people who were opposing formation of a centralized federal government.Bicameral: A legislative body consisting of two branches.Elastic Clause: Congress has the power to pass every laws it needs in order to carry out its powers.Enumerated powers: They are the three branches of our system of government.Federalist Papers: A collection of articles that supported the ratification of the US Constitution.Full faith and credit clause: An article in the US constitution that says we must respect “public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state”.Limited government: a political philosophy where governmental power is restricted by law, and not the other way around. It is a key concept for ConservativesNatural rights: John Locke defined these as the rights to “life, liberty, and property”.Privileges and immunities clause: Prevents states from treating other state’s citizens discriminately. Reserved Power Amendment: All powers not mentioned in the US constitution are left to the states.Separation of powers: Our government’s powers are divided into three branches: Executive, Judicial, and Legislative.Supremacy clause: The US constitution is the supreme law of the land. States rights are of secondary importance.Unalienable rights: The proclamation in the US Constitution that states “all Men are created equal” and that we are given “certain unalienable rights”.Block grants: Grants from the central government to local government that can be used for many unlisted purposes. Conservatives are in favor of this.Categorical grants: Grants from the central government to local government that must be used for specific purposes designated by the central government. Liberals are in favor of this.Competitive federalism: The philosophy that local governments should compete with one another for business, population, and income. Cooperative federalism: The belief that local governments should work with one another in order to overcome their problems.Creative federalism: The belief that the federal government should decide for states their needs, and provide them with those resources.Dual federalism: The idea that power should be clearly divided between federal and state government so that states can understand and act with the powers they are left with. No Child Left Behind: A law that required states to follow an education program that made students learn certain things decided by the government.Unfunded mandates: Regulations that demand states or local government to perform certain duties without federal funding.