Aged The training and education needs vary in each

Aged care nursing
a multispecialty area where individual patient needs or requirements vary.
Therefore, the nurses involved in aged care need to develop requisite skills
for catering to the patient requirements. This involves developing knowledge
regarding the evidence based methods and practices. Additionally, the nursing
care policies and regulations are also important in provision of effective care
to the patients. In this respect, the education and training of the nursing staff
governs the success of the care plans and intervention methods. This essay
analyses the professional attributes and scope of practice that differentiates
an aged care nurse.


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      According to Dr. Patrica Benner, the transitions
from novice to expert consist of 5 stages as follows – novice, advanced
beginner, competent, proficient, expert. Dr Benner’s theory makes emphasis on
the skills and understanding of a nurse and how it develops over time through
education and training. In the novice stage one is totally dependent upon the mentor
for getting specific set of instructions. As commented by Phelan
& McCormack (2016), the behaviour of an individual
is limited and flexible at this stage. 
On the contrary, at an advanced beginner stage an individual has prior
experience in handling similar situations. 
In competent stage a nurse has already developed 2-3 years of expertise within
the same area of nursing care and can handle emergency situations. At this
stage the nursing staffs are able to plan their own actions based on abstract and
analytical thinking. In the proficient stage a holistic understanding is
established to facilitate decision making. As commented by Willetts  et al. (2017), at the expert
stage a nurse develops intuitive grasp of clinical situations.

       The training and education needs vary in
each stage of nursing care from novice to expert care. In this stage certain
features of the task which are the very basic of nursing care are taught to the
students such as measuring weight of the patients, temperature and blood
pressure monitoring. As commented by Surr et al.  (2017), at the novice stage one is unable to
use judgement or discretionary powers. In the advanced beginner stage a nurse
is able to form effective relationship with the patients and give detailed
instructions based on recurrent meaningful patterns learnt in the clinical
trial sessions (Lewis et al., 2015).
As mentioned by Cashin et al. (2017),
the use of therapeutic communication approaches for understanding the needs and
requirements of the patients is emphasized at the advance beginner’s stage. In
the competent stage, the nurse has developed sufficient ideas to manage
clinical risks based on analytical skills. At the competent stage of clinical
practice the nurses are made to undergo clinical simulation games to develop
their decision making skills which will them in coordinating complex multiple
patient needs and demands (Houser, 2016).

       In the competent stage, the nurse should
be consciously made aware of the long term goals and should be able to
differentiate between the emergency and later concerns. As mentioned by Willetts  et al. (2017), emphasizing upon
evidence based practices can help in providing effective care to the patients.  For example, in dealing aged patients suffering
from rheumatoid arthritis, the nurses should be trained upon the implementation
and inculcation of light stretches and exercises within the daily care routine
of the patients. Maxims are used to guide the nurses at proficient stage and consists
of standard code of conduct which is applied within particular scenarios. The
proficient performers are taught with the help of case studies, which helps
them in developing the required intuitions for analysing a similar clinical situation
(Chenoweth et al., 2014). At the expert
stage a nurse has developed sufficient clinical judgement and ability. As
argued by Cashin et al. (2015), the expert
nursing code of practice is holistic in nature rather than procedural. The
expert nurses are supposed to show increased control, understanding in dealing
with the grievances of the patient.

       The Aged care is one of the complex areas
of nursing care which requires sufficient skills along with formal education. As
commented by Huang et al. (2014),
the aged care nurses are required to develop leadership and management skills.
The comprehensive aged care underlines ethical and professional understanding
of clinical practise which results in improved patient outcome (Willetts
et al., 2017).

       In this respect, the Nursing and
Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) has stated a number of professional codes
of conducts.  A few of them have been
discussed over here with respect to aged care nursing. The first objective states
that the nurses should practice in a safe and competent manner. Under this the
nurses should not undertake practices outside their scope of practice which may
compromise the safety of the patients, such as while designing the care plans
for the aged patient affected with diabetes neuropathy and restricted movement,
the nurse should not suggest strenuous exercises to them which may result in
serious injuries. The second objective states that the nurses should act in
accordance with the standards of their profession and broader health system (Meißner
& Schnepp, 2014). Under this the nurses can
intervene to safeguard the basic good will and interest of the aged people
under care. This is particularly true with regards of the patients suffering from
dementia, as their reasoning and decision making skills are affected. As per
the objective number 4, the nurse should respect the basic dignity, culture, ethnicity,
values of the patient. This is particularly true in case of respecting the
autonomy and self sufficiency in the patients. A patient with Alzheimer’s may
have restricted decision making skills. This could lead to the development of
clinical disputes where the practising nurse may limit the freedom and autonomy
of the patients owing to safety concerns.  This may be a breach of the Mental Health Capacity
Act, 2005, as per which the patient
should be given sufficient freedom to participate in care planning and decision


       Education and training of the nurse
forms an important component of patient care. In the present scenario the aspects
of aged care have been highlighted as well as the development of a nurse from
novice to expert have been highlighted. There are various aspects of education
and training provision in nursing care based upon practical experiences, case
studies as well as maxims.  An individual
enters into nursing practice with little or no knowledge and is mostly dependent
upon instructions from seniors regarding practice methods or procedures to be
applied.  However, there is a gradual
shifting from novice to expert based upon the application of NMBA standards of
nursing. This forms the core of nursing practices enlisting the various regulations
of patient care. The implication of the NMBA standards also helps in
maintaining the core ethics of nursing care.