After a tough war, America was granted her independence in 1776 by her colony Britain. The Congress drafted and enacted state constitutions which would guide the newly independent nation. Americans celebrated their victory, although it came with a great cost. Soldiers had to suffer due to inadequate resources and harsh climate to the extent of lives being lost. The year 1783 marked the end of the war which was mainly due to the Treaty of Paris were Loyalists who were formerly slaves fled together with the British army.
In 1788, Philadelphians walked in procession to honor the new constitution. Workers in all professions demonstrated not of anything bad but due to this achievement that they felt being part of. Americans envisioned the United States as being a diverse and prosperous nation. Americans had a Thanksgiving spirit, and even George appealed to citizens to celebrate Thanksgiving in 1789 as he took the presidential oath.
However, despite these celebrations, a lot of uncertainties in the future faced this nation. Challenges started cropping up for this new nation in 1787 with one being the rebellion by farmers in Massachusetts due to what they claimed as a big problem of debt. The farmers used tactics that had been applied during the revolution including prevention of court hearings. It was referred to as the Shays’ rebellion.
As a result of this rebellion in Massachusetts, delegates of the thirteen states except Rhode Island met in Philadelphia, with the aim of amending the Articles of Confederation. The federal government’s failure to charge taxes was the biggest issue that convention needs to fix. In what was known as the Virginia Plan, United States must have a strong federal government consisting legislative, executive and judicial branches with authority to act on national issues.
Heated debates amongst citizens arose over the constitution before its ratification by the Congress. Most of the state conventions ratified the constitution but attached proposed amendments to it. By 1791, ten amendments were made including the Bill of Rights. However, the Bill of Rights did not cover women rights. Slavery was also not condemned by the constitution as it still continued to exist. The Northerners opposed slavery and slave trade based on morality while the Southerners were obtaining them to work on their plantations and eventually they would increase the political power of these states. It was until 1808 that slave trade was illegal as a result of the Haitian Revolution, black revolutionaries, and prohibiting of the slave trade by Britain. However, the prohibiting on slave trade do not have enough effective funding and enforcement measures. Thus, the new federal government expanded white men democratic rights and privileges while protecting the slavery.
There was a financial system existed in American society called Hamilton’s financial system. In his financial system, he suggested adding the tax on whiskey and production in order to pay the new debt. He oversaw the issuance of a charter for the Bank of the United States in 1791 after approval by Congress. Washington appointed Alexander Hamilton as the Secretary of the Treasury. However, they all had the same goal which anticipated an active government to develop the country by enhancing American industry. But for Thomas Jefferson was focus on agriculture fundamental economy.
Rebellions continued with farmers revolting against the government in riotous acted which took the government two years to contain them. The entry into trade treaty between America and Britain did not go well with some citizens citing that America had not acted neutrally to the war between Britain and France. It led to France attacking America’s vessels. This came to be known as the French Revolution.
Due to this heated debate over the French Revolution, Americans were not sure about their religious future. The attitude of the whole of the United States to government and religion had changed slowly and significantly. In 1776, the American state governments did not observe separation of state and church. The thirteen states had formally established tax-supported churches or even needed the profession beliefs of officials. It was in efforts to protect social order and morality. However, the period between 1780 and 1840 was characterized by the rise of new Christian denominations.
In 1861 to 1865 the American Civil War occurred in the United States. It was caused due to the conflicts between the southerners and northerners on holding the different views of abolishing slavery and the disequilibrium of the economic system. Abraham Lincoln was elected president heightened tensions between the North and the South. As a result, the South was defeated in this war. On the one hand, after Civil War, government decided to reconstruct the South. Meanwhile, the slavery was abolished, and also southern laws gave African Americans some rights and they could get a job in state. On the other hand, the civil war destroyed the economy of the South and led to many soldiers die, which means they would suffer the severe poverty.