Abstract— The invention of satellites enables the broadcasting of

Abstract— The invention of
satellites enables the broadcasting of signals throughout the whole part of the
world and thus, enabling the communication system to be more revolutionized..
The presence of satellites in communication system has made many things
possible such as to predict weather, enabling television programs to be
relayed, and most recent is enabling mobile communication. In the future, the
satellite will be used for much more advanced purposes. This journal will
report about the advancement of satellite TV broadcasting and its impact to the
society. The impact will be discussed in terms of the benefits of satellite TV
broadcasting and also the potential risk that might occur in terms of health,
safety and legal issues.

Satellites, Communication
system, Satellite TV broadcasting.

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I.      Introduction

television is television that uses satellite communications to receive the data
that will display on the screen by using parabolic reflector (antenna).
Residents can use external set-top boxes or television tuner to set the channel that they want
to watch. This satellite television gives a wide range of channels and services
especially the place or area that didn’t have cable providers. Nowadays, technological developments of the digital are very rapid
compared to the other field. With the advancement of technology, media TV
becomes part of the growing information media at this time, Sutisno (1993: 3)
states that compared to other media, television has more capability in
presenting a variety of human needs, whether information, entertainment, and
education. Satellite television is one of the mass media that has audio visual
ability that has a great influence on the audience. Seen from its wide-ranging
characteristics and immediately touch the human visual and auditory stimuli,
store various data and information, and simultaneously disseminate quickly to
far-flung places, delivering immediate experience to the audience and arousing
intimate feelings or personal media.

II.    Satellite
TV Broadcasting: Working Principle, Historty, Advancement, Impacts and
Potential Risks

A.    Working

Satellite TV systems transmit and receive signals using specialized
antennas also known as satellite dishes. The dishes and receiving equipment
enables picking up foreign stations, live feeds between different broadcast
stations. Today, satellite TV is programmed through direct broadcast satellite
(DBS) provider, such as DirecTV or DISH Network depending on availability of
programs in that particular country. Unlike the earlier version, the provider’s
broadcast is digital that results in better sound and picture quality. There
are five major components involved in DBS system which is programming source,
broadcast center, the satellite, receiver and satellite dish.

Figure 1: Overview
of Satellite TV broadcasting

By looking at the figure, the programming sources are the channels that
provide programming for broadcast. Some of the examples of channels are HBO and
ESPN which were paid and has the rights to broadcast via satellite. The broadcast
center which is the DBS acts as the central hub. At this point, programming
sources sends signal to TV provider and the satellite will receive a broadcast
signal as it moves in geosynchronous orbit. Then, the satellite will
rebroadcast back the signal to earth connecting it to the satellite dishes and
passes it to the receiver in the house. Finally the receiver convert signals
and display it to a standard TV. Satellite TV providers usually receive
programming from two different sources which is turnaround channels and local
channels. Turnaround channels are channels that acts globally as they have
their distribution center that sends their programming to a geosynchronous
satellite. While local channels are channels that broadcast their programming
over airwaves. This is by having small local facility consisting of
communication equipment that receives signals from the broadcaster through an
antenna and transmit them to central broadcast center. The signals in the
programming form received will be converted into a high-quality, uncompressed
digital stream. In this case, satellite TV uses Moving Picture Experts Group
(MPEG) video file compression to transmit channels. There are five MPEG
standards used depending on the type of programming which are MPEG-1, MPEG-2,
MPEG-4 and MPEG-21. High quality digital stream of videos goes through MPEG
encoder that converts the programming to MPEG-4 video which is compatible to
format of satellite receiver in the house. During encoding, each video frame is
analyze and redundant data is eliminated as to reduce the overall size of file.
Once compressing is done, the provider encrypts it to avoid people using it for
free. It is done such a way the digital data is scrambled that it can’t be
decrypted unless receiver has the correct algorithm or security passcode. After
the signal is compressed and encrypted the broadcast center sends it to the
satellite and the satellite will amplify the signal back to Earth. The signal
is received by the satellite dishes on houses and the end component in this
satellite TV system is the receiver where it will de-scrambles the encrypted
signal. This can only be done by having the proper decoder chip for that
particular programming package. The MPEG formatted signal is converted into
analog format which a standard TV recognizes. Such as in United States, the
digital signal if converted into National Television Systems Committee (NTSC)


B.    History
Of Satellite TV Broadcasting

In 1957, the first satellite that orbits the earth was
used and launched by the Russians named Sputnik. This was during space race
between USA and Russia. Then in 1963, the first satellite communication was
launched. This satellite was developed and improved by government entities and
large corporations and name it Syncom II. It was the first telecommunication
medium between US Navy Ship in Nigeria and Naval station in New Jersey and
orbited 22,300 miles over Atlantic Ocean. Later in 1962, television started to
go international and the first satellite television broadcast was launched and
shown across America, Canada and Europe. On April 1965, the world’s first
commercial satellite was launched into geosynchronous orbit named Intelsat I.
While on 30th May 1974, Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6),
the first NASA’s experimental educational satellite and Direct Broadcast
Satellite (DBS) was launched. Somehow even then, people living in rural areas
had problems accessing normal broadcast and DTH (direct to home) was
introduced. It is a several feet diameter dish shaped device with an antenna
that is used to pick up television broadcast from satellites overhead. However,
the drawback for this system is that people can receive the signals for free
through Television Receive Only (TVRO) system until Federal Communication Commission
(FCC) ruled against TV stations and state new policies where the public do have
rights to receive the signal. Hence, encryption of signal and decoders were
introduced that in order to view programming, one should also purchase a
decoder. In 1980, FCC established regulations for DBS as it is set the stage
for all television markets. This would be a new service which implement
broadcast satellites orbiting the earth in geosynchronous orbit. In 1991,
United States launched their first satellite which was called as “Primestar”
and followed by DIRECTV (1994) and DISH NETWORK (1996). Satellite TV has come a
long way, from having large dishes that would take half a backyard and having
poor signals to levels that it be able to outstand cable TV.  

C.    Advancement

The satellite TV
broadcasting has undergone many changes ever since it was first used.The
research and development for satellite TV broadcasting  have been undergoing constant evolution for
the betterment of the system.As a result,major advancements have been made
possible.Some of them are listed as follows:


1) The enhancement of digital modulation and forward error
correction(FEC) procedures .


Digital modulation is one of the
modulation method which uses discrete signals to modulate a carrier wave. On
the other hand, FEC is a correction method which encodes the information in a
redundant way so that the receiver can correct the errors by reconstructing the
lost bits. These methods allow operation closer to theoretical limits and
better bandwidth efficiency.


  2) Extensive spectrum efficiency is attained by increased satellite
frequency reuse.


Since the bandwidth allocation is limited, frequency reuse scheme is used
to expand the capacity of the system. In this scheme, common interference among
signals which uses same frequencies can be controlled by having the required
isolation among that signals. In satellites, frequency reuse scheme can be
applied by using orthogonal polarization states for transmitting a signal.


3) The number
of channels that can be carried is raised by increasing the frequency limits in
coaxial cable and amplifiers.


For an instance, a 35-channel system with operating frequency of 50-300
MHz can be increased to 52-channel system .This is done by raising the
operating frequency limit to 400 MHz and also by increasing 15% of the number
of amplifiers.


4) The
evolvement of system architecture enables the elimination of redundant
transmission of all programs to all customers, thus increasing the capacity for
other uses.


System architecture has progressed from purely coaxial cable used in tree-to-branch
architecture to hybrid fiber- coaxial(HFC) architecture. This HFC architecture
enables bidirectional services such as telephone systems which could not be
performed by purely coaxial cable system. As time goes, a newer architecture
was developed to increase the capacity of cable systems. This new architecture
is called Switched Digital Video (SDV).SDV enables the capacity of the system
to be increased by transmitting channels that are only being watched by the
users. The unused capacity is used for other purposes ,for an example,
high-speed broadband.



Figure 2:HFC


5) A mixed channel transmitting
scheme is introduced to the succeeding satellite TV systems.


The widespread of ultra-high definition (UHD) and 3-dimensional (3D) TV
programs have posed a challenge to  the
current TV broadcasting system due to its high transmission bandwidth
requirements. Hence ,a mixed channel transmitting scheme is introduced to the
future satellite TV systems to solve this.The mixed scheme is able to upgrade
the frequency bandwidth usage with still providing users with programs of great
quality (in terms of signal).

D.    Impacts

Nowadays, many residents still more prefer satellite
television due to the satellite tv got full coverage for given region. Besides,
the advancements of technology make the data transmission between Tv and Tv
station become wireless. This make the distance and the cost to make the cable
can be removed and the data can be transmitted further without increase the
cost. Any residents can have this satellite Tv with low cost because the cost
to install the system is very cheap and easy to install it. The improvement of
technology makes the enhancement of frequency bandwidth utilization and the
residents can have more excellent watching experience. Compared with before,
the tv resolution is 240p or 480p, nowadays satellite Tv already have 720p even
1080p. Apart from that, satellite Tv has very high-speed connection and
high broadcasting capacity, it almost 65000 connections once. Therefore,
residents can have a nice experience to watching the tv show without any delay
or buffering. During the transmission of data or communication between two
device will loss many energy and make the cost higher. However, the
advancements of communication technology make the energy loss decrease and more