computing is an upcoming advanced technology that has huge impact in various
areas such as entertainment, healthcare, government, and commerce. Education, is one of the key area in which this
technology also proved its existence in terms of performance, effectiveness and
enhancing teaching and learning practices.
A huge body of literature is available on the potential benefits of
cloud computing in educational institutions and also it has been widely
accepted for adoption for e-Learning in higher institutions in developed
countries. But the adoption of cloud computing in developing countries is low as
compared to developed countries and also , there is a lack of empirical studies
that investigate the factors that influence its adoption of Cloud computing in
higher educational institutions in developing countries especially in Indian
fill this gap, this study is chosen , which emphasizes on identifying and examining the factors
that influence the behaviour of students in higher educational institutions for
adopting the concept of cloud computing in their educational zone. This
empirical study is based on the Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3) model
which is not yet used in India in Education for implementation which maintain
the originality of the topic.
This study employs scientific approach,
which involves collecting , analyzing and interpreting the data to find the
solution by various approaches.
of the best approach to accomplish the global literacy is through collaboration, learning process,
communication, research and problem solving and this is possible with the
invention of new innovative techniques and tools. To broaden the learning and
teaching experience, different approaches are used and one the recent approach
used is the Cloud Computing Concept.
Cloud Computing” which assumed as the fifth
generation of computing after client-server computing, mainframe computing,
personal computing and the web (Alzaid & Albazzaz, 2013; Khmelevsky &
Voytenko, 2010; Rajan & Jairath, 2011).
this digital age, it is now necessary to use the different aspects and services
of IT in educational sector also. Higher education institutions are among those
sectors that are in great need of new innovative technologies. One of the
attractive and best proposition for higher educational institutions are Cloud
computing establishment. Cloud computing technology allows students to learn,
collaborate, and share information online (Rao & Challa, 2013; Razak,
to Davis, F., Bagozzir, R. & Warshaw, P. (1989, p.985), the technology
acceptance model (TAM) is “an adaptation of Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
specifically tailored for modeling user acceptance of information systems”.
This is one of the well-known models
which depicts the behaviour intentions of user related to technology acceptance
and use. TAM is originally an extension of Theory Reasoned Action (TRA) .
Fishbein (1967) demonstrated the relationship between intention and behavior by
linking the relationship between beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behavior. The
foundation of TAM is underlined on two
fundamental key elements- perceived ease of use (PEOU) which focuses on system
design and features and perceived usefulness (PU) focuses on optimal
Statement: Cloud computing concept proved itself through out the world in
different aspects. A lot of studies has been conducted on various issues such
as deployment of cloud in terms of
SaaS,PaaS and IaaS, resource pooling, security issues etc. but the study about
the adoption of cloud computing in different clients is less in number.
Especially in India, the study about the adoption of cloud computing in
education is not done yet. This study identify the factors that throw light on
the behaviour for the acceptance of cloud computing by students in higher
education. This study extends TAM3 model to identify the impacts of various factors that affect the
adoption of cloud computing applications by students. Basically, this study is among the
few ones that extend TAM3 to develop a model for investigating cloud computing
applications adoption by students in academic settings.
24,2006 is assumed to be the birth day of cloud computing as on this day Amazon
publically made the test version of its Elastic Computing Cloud(EC2)Business
week, 2006. Cloud computing predecessor have been around for some time now
E.Naone, 2007, but the term has got “popularity” in October 2007 when IBM and
Google made a collaboration in that
domain S.LOHR,2007. Then IBM made an announcement of the “Blue
Cloud”IBM,2007. Then the term cloud computing has got entry in Wikipedia in May,2008
a days Cloud Computing produces more than 10.3 million matches on Google. Cloud
computing concept goes on flourishing stage because of their potential benefits
such as Virtualization, storage aspects, resource pooling.
Education sector, various studies have been conducted as taking cloud computing
concept on national and international levels.
to Muhammad Imran, the research study is carried out that focuses on the need
to work upon the process for enhancing the adoption of Cloud Computing (CC) in
Higher education institutions in Pakistan. As he said, the impact of CC and the
factors of cloud adoption is still unexplored in Pakistan in higher education
sector. The study includes the cloud adoption model in which a survey was carried out from 900 students all
over. 34 hypothesis were developed and tested by the statistical analysis
tools. The findings showed84.4% of students voted in favour of CC adoption in
their colleges and 99% supported reduce cost as important factor in cloud
adoption. The study has been carried out by the mixed approach of TOE framework
and DOI(Diffusion- of- innovation) and some new factors of security, technical
aspects, organizational challenges, environmental and external pressures.
research study also suggested that higher institutions should invest in
implementing the cloud computing concept in their institutions so that
students, teachers and management could be benefited from it.
Muhammad Imran, Shahzadi Tayyaba,
Haroon Rashid and Muhammad Waseem, ” Factors influencing the cloud computing
adoption in higher education institutions of Punjab, Pakistan” , International
conference on communication, computing and
digital Systems(C-code), 2017, 978-1-5090-4448-1/17.
to González-Martínez et.al, the research study is carried out that further
documented the benefits of cloud computing for educational institutions in
terms of the flexible creation of learning environments; the availability of
online applications to support education; computing-intensive support for
learning, teaching, as well as evaluation; support for mobile learning; the
scalability of learning systems and applications; and cost savings.
González-Martínez, J. A.,
Bote-Lorenzo, M. L., Gómez-Sánchez, E., & Cano-Parra, R. (2015). Cloud
computing and education: A state-of-the-art survey. Computers &
Education, 80, 132-151.
X. Tan and Kim demonstrated how Cloud computing services such as Google Docs
was used by a group of students pursuing Master of Business Administration
(MBA) at a University in North Eastern of USA to carry out their projects.
X., & Kim, Y. (2011). Cloud computing for education: A case of using
Google Docs in MBA group projects. Paper presented at the 2011
International Conference on Business Computing and Global Informatization,
Studies in India
cloud is becoming famous in India too yet the acceptance of cloud application
by students in higher education is under question mark.
Cloud Computing in education in
respect to the Indian context, cloud computing concept has already shown its
presence in education sector as many of colleges and universities are into the
use of cloud based applications for imparting the education to the students.
to Indu nair et.al(2012), the study is conducted using TAM to analysis the
teacher’s attitude towards technology such as cloud computing. The study
includes the basic factors of TAM taken up by the model ‘Teacher’s Attitude
towards technology Use model(TATUM) in which the target group of mathematics teachers were selected. The
findings indicate the analysis of
various factors as Perceived usefulness(PU), Perceived ease of use (PEOU),
Attitude and behavioral intentions to use. The challenges are training,
security and privacy.
Indu Nair and V. Mukunda Das,”
Using Technology Acceptance Model to assess teacher’s attitude towards use of
technology as teaching tool: A SEM Approach”, International Journal of computer
Applications(0975-8887), March 2012,Vol42-No-2.
to Sudheer et.al, the empirical study is carried out, in which TAM model is
implemented to knowledge base to analysis the behaviour of business education
students towards adoption of technology of social media which is implemented by
cloud concept. The research study is carried out amongst 145 students of MBA.
The major findings of the study pertain to the relationship of independent
variables (Perceived Ease of use, Perceived usefulness), intervening
variables(Attitude) on dependent variables( Intention to use). Challenges in
this study are limited sample size, adoption analysis of only social media not
another web tools and the study is failed to analysis the actual use of web
tools that would enhance the checking of TAM applicability.
Sudheer M.Dhume, Muragesh
Y.Pattanshetti , Sachin S. Kamble & T. Parshad ,” Adoption of Social Media
by Business Education Student: Application of Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)
“, NIITEE, Mumbai.
to Sachin Patil, the study shown its result in determining and analyzing the
factors affecting the e-learning acceptance of teachers and students by
implementing cloud with TAM in higher education. The study was carried our in
Pune University through interview method in order to determine the user
acceptance concept applicable in india. The study depicts the level of awareness,
adoption and factors of adoption of e-learning by respondents in higher
education institutions. The research study suggested the need to develop the
policies and guidelines by government that should support the teaching and
Sachin Patil & P.N.Razdan, ”
Creating Awareness, Acceptance and application of E-learning in Higher
education institutions: Using Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)” , International
Journal of Multidisciplinary Consortium,( ISSN 2349-073X), 2015,Volume-2, issue-4.
to Aman et. al, with the advent of computers and technology like cloud, the
domain bounds have disappeared. The teaching and learning process is conducted
in virtual space. In this study, the discussion is on IT challenges in
higher education environment like costly
hardware, updations and maintenance of hardware , licensed software, virus
attack, portability issues etc. Further, the study suggested that there is a
need to adopt new technologies and approaches for education sector and education
cloud can address the role of CC
technology to improve teaching and learning process.
to Mircea et.al, cloud computing may be
viewed as an extension of SOA(Service oriented Architecture) and also as a best
alternate of using IT for educational environment with in limited financial
Katz in his book, ” The Tower and the Cloud” , various areas has been discussed
in which cloud computing has been used as a good alternate in education. Also
he discussed, many security issues and threats to cloud information.
to Sudha Devi et. al, to achieve security of data, private cloud is more
recommendable rather than public cloud. The study emphasis on addressing the
challenges towards public cloud and the prominent alternatives for adoption of
private cloud in educational institutions. Also the model is discussed to set
up the private cloud in educational institutions for better security, resource
utilization and to minimize risks. The article also describes how to access the
database server stored in the cloud for better use.
D.Sudha Devi, Yamuna Devi, K.
Thilagavarthy, Aruna, Priya, S. Vasantha, ” Private cloud in Educational
institutions: An implementation using UEC” , International Journal of Computer
Applications, (0975-8887), Sep-2013, Vol. 78-No. 1.
to Harsimran et. al, the study article describes the advantages and
disadvantages of cloud computing in education sector. The benefits include
personalized learning, economics elasticity and scalability, accessibility,
standardization, green computing while the challenges include security,
compliance issue, lock-in and reliability and interoperability issues.
Harsimran Singh Anand and
Kamayani,” Scope of Cloud Computing in Education Sector: A Review”, June
2015,(ISSN: 2349-7688), Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 150-152.
Although educational institutions are
using cloud for the education yet in contrast , the adoption level of cloud
computing is very low and there is lack of studies conducted to analysis the
behavioral aspect of the students to use cloud based applications in education.
The current studies in higher education are not able to focus on examining the
factors that affect students’ adoption of cloud computing services but rather
consider academic staff, IT personnel and other decision makers within the
institution (H. S. Hashim, Hassan, & Hashim, 2015; Irshad & Johar,
2015; Sabi, Uzoka, Langmia, & Njeh, 2016; A. Tashkandi & I. M.
Al-Jabri, 2015). To fill the gap of the limitations in the previous studies in
examining the factors that affect cloud computing applications adoption by
students, the aim of this research is to determine and investigate the factors
that affect cloud computing applications adoption in the higher education
institutions by students. It is expected that the perception and willingness of
the students will determine the successful implementation and use of the technology
(Behrend, Wiebe, London, & Johnson, 2011). Therefore, this study conducted
in Punjab to determine the prominent
factors affecting the adoption of cloud based applications by students in
Punjab with the help of TAM3 model. This model will help the decision makers
from higher education institutions and the cloud based providers to focus on
the factors that effect the aspect of student to adopt for the cloud computing
application for learning process.
Originality of study:
In India, TAM model is implemented to basic mode in the field education and
other fields but the TAM3 which is an extended model of TAM is not used
anywhere in India as such.
The Research Model
This researchadapted Technology
Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3) and extended it to suit the context of the study in
order to accomplish the aim of the study. However, the research model differs
from the original TAM3 in 5 aspects as shown in Figure 4.1. Subjective
NormImageJob RelevanceOutput QualityResult DemonstrabilitySelf-efficacyPerceptions
of External ControlAnxietyPlayfulnessPerceived EnjoymentInternet
ExperiencePerceived UsefulnessPerceived Ease of UseBehavioural
IntentionTrustTechnology Acceptance Model
4-1 The research model
Technology Acceptance Model
and Bala (2008) proposed a comprehensive version of TAM with a focus to use the
IT application to the fullest. He proposed the model with modifications called
as TAM3, which is presented in Figure
below,which is a product of merging TAM2 (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) with the
model of the perceived ease of use predictors (Venkatesh, 2000). Venkatesh and
Bala (2008) categorized the determinants of perceived ease of use and perceived
usefulness into four different groups which are individual differences, social
influence, system characteristics, and facilitating conditions. Individual
differences are “personality and/or demographics (e.g., traits or states of
individuals, gender, and age) that can influence individuals’ perceptions of
perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use” (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008, p.
276). They include computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, and computer
playfulness from the determinants of preceived ease of use (Venkatesh, 2000).
System characteristics represent “those salient features of a system that can
help individuals develop favorable (or unfavorable) perceptions regarding the
usefulness or ease of use of a system” (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008, p. 276).
System characteristics comprise perceived ease of use, output quality, job
relevance, and result demonstrability. Social influence “captures various
social processes and mechanisms that guide individuals to formulate perceptions
of various aspects of an IT” (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008, p. 276). Social
influence variables are subjective norm and image. Facilitating conditions or
perceptions of external control is “the degree to which an individual believes
that organizational and technical resources exist to support the use of the
system” (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008, p. 279).
Objectives of the study
research study focus to find and examine the various factors that affect the
adoption of cloud computing applications by higher education institution
students in Punjab specifically with the following research objectives:
review literature in order to identify the factors that influence higher
education institutions students’ behavioral intensions for the adoption of
cloud computing applications .
develop an adoption model ofcloud
computing applications by extending TAM3, which will be used to study the
factors affecting the behavioral aspects of students for using cloud based
verify and validate the proposed research model by performing empirically tests
on students using a survey questionnaire.
analysis the impact of trust on the adoption of cloud based applications by
assess the impact of security and privacy factors on the adoption of cloud
computing applications by students.
provide necessary recommendations to the decision makers of higher education
institutions and the providers of cloud applications which help them to make
the adoption of cloud computing more successful among the students in Punjab.