ABSTRACT: in Bangladesh. It is a significant issue in

ABSTRACT:

Cyber and technology related crime is gradually
increasing in Bangladesh. It is a significant issue in Bangladesh. It has
already been seen that a glomming threat becomes visible in the arena of
information technology.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Recently the hacking of RAB website and e-mail
threats of former prime minister is example for few of them. In contrast,
cybercrime is becoming a threat to government itself. Due to lack of necessary
legislation to tackle such type of crime, cyber criminals are almost in the
safe side to commit such crime.

In the Information and Communication Technology
Act-2006 and ICT (Amendment) Act-2013 there are several clauses against
cybercrime. But this Information and Communication

Technology act is not the concrete one. By enacting
this act, there is a chance to become safe side after committing crimes.

So, considering these facts a comprehensive
Cybercrime Protection Act should be imposed. This article incorporates the
impacts   of cybercrime in Bangladesh especially
focuses on the area of Personal life, Workplace as well as Policy making Bodies
or   thinkers. I believe that this
article would help all relevant concerns and especially policy makers.

 

INTRODUCTION:

There
is sharp rise in the Cybercrimes in Bangladesh and the Law enforcement
machinery is finding it really it really difficult to manage these technical
crimes in Bangladesh. Cybercrime has already become a going concern in both
private as well as public sector in Bangladesh. During the last decade private
and public sector has done a revolution with the use of technical enhancement.
Due to unauthorized intervention to the system, company loses huge confidential
information which caused a large amount of financial lose. It has already been
identified that especially Financial Institutions are in the most threading
organization for cybercrime that at the same time reflects to the personal
life. Some development partners have started working how to tackle cybercrime
and improve effective communications.

 

OBJECTIVES:

 

The overall purpose of the
article was to identify the impact of cybercrime in Bangladesh with regard to
technological enhancement.

The
study has embarked upon the specific objectives are to assess:

a) Types of
cybercrime with the profile of cyber criminals and victims;

b) Impact of
cybercrime against individuals;

c) Impact of
cybercrime against organizations;

d) Impact of
cybercrime against the Government;

e) Necessary Legislations in Bangladesh
to tackle Cybercrime.

 

CYBERCRIME:

 

In Generally Cybercrime may be
said to be those offences, of which, genus is the conventional

Crime, and where either the
computer is an object or subject of the conduct constituting crime.

An prominent Advocate  Daggal 
Pawan  Specialist on cybercrime
define as “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either an
instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within
the ambit of cybercrime”3. Another definition of cybercrime may be “unlawful
acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both”.

Cybercrimes can be defined as
‘Crime against individual or organization by means of computer is called
cybercrime. Cybercrimes are those crimes which are committed in a network
environment or on internet.

 

TYPES
OF CYBERCRIME:

Cybercrime
is the latest and perhaps the most complicated problem in the cyber world.
“Cybercrime may be said to be those species, of which, genus is the conventional
crime, and where either the computer is an object or subject of the conduct
constituting crime”. “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality,
target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of
cybercrime.

The
followings are the top listed types of cybercrime:

 

1.   
Hacking

Hacking
is a simple term means illegal intrusion into a computer system without the
permission of the computer owner/user. Hackers usually do that with the intention
of obtaining confidential information. An Active hackers group, led by one Dr.
Nuker, who claim to be founder of Pakistan Hacker Club, reportedly hacked the
websites of Indian Parliament, Ahmedabad Telephone Exchange, Engineering Export
Promotion Council, and United Nation, India.

 

2.   
Virus Dissemination

Virus
itself is software that attacks other software. It may cause for data loss, deduction
of bandwidth speed, hardware damage etc. Trojan Horse, Time Bomb, Logic Bomb,
Rabbit are the malicious software.

 

3.   
Software Piracy

Theft
of software through the illegal coping of genuine programs or distribution of
products intended to pass for the original.

 

 

 

4.   
Pornography

Pornography
is the first consistently successful e-commerce product. Deceptive marketing
tactics and mouse trapping technologies pornography encourage customers to
access their website. Anybody including children can log on to the internet and
access website with pornographic contents with a click of a mouse.

 

5.    
Credit Card Fraud

You
simply have to type credit card number into www page of the vendor for online
transaction. If electronic transactions are not secured the credit card numbers
can be stolen by the hackers who can misuse this card by impersonating the
credit card owner. Through falsification of computerized bank accounts cores of
taka may be misappropriated. In some cases people are arrested and charged for
stealing and misusing credit card numbers belonging to others.

 

6.    
Sale of Illegal Articles

Narcotics,
weapons and wild life etc. are sold by posting information on websites, auction
websites, and bulletin board or simply by using email communication. Many of
auction sites are believed to be selling cocaine in the name of money.

 

7.    
Cyber Stalking

Cyber
stalking involves following a person’s movement across the Internet by posting
messages on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim, entering the
chat-room frequently by the victim, constantly bombarding the victim with
emails etc.

 

8.    
Email Bombing

Email
bombing can be committed by sending huge number of emails to the victim
resulting in the victim’s email account ( in case of an individual) or mail
servers ( in case of company or an email service provider) crashing. Thousands
of emails are sent to the personal account or mail server until it is crashed.

 

9.    
Data Diddling

Data
diddling may be committed by altering raw data just before it is processed by a
computer and then changing it back after processing is completed. Government
offices may be victims to data diddling programs inserted when private parties
were computerizing their systems.

 

 

 

 

REASONS
OF CYBERCRIME:

Hart in his work “The Concept of Law”
has said ‘human beings are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect
them’. Applying this to the cyberspace we may say that computers are vulnerable
so rule of law is required to protect and safeguard them against cybercrime11.

The
reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be said to be:

 

1.    
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space

The computer has unique
characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords to remove or
derive information either through physical or virtual medium makes it much easier.

 

2.    
Easy to access

The
problem encountered in guarding a computer system from unauthorized access is
that there is every possibility of breach not due to human error but due to the
complex technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can
steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool
biometric systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to get past many a
security system.

 

3.    
Complex

The
computers work on operating systems and these operating systems in turn are
composed of millions of codes. Human mind is fallible and it is not possible
that there might not be a lapse at any stage. The cyber criminals take
advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into the computer system.

 

4.    
Negligence

Negligence
is very closely connected with human conduct. It is therefore very probable
that while protecting the computer system there might be any negligence, which
in turn provides a cyber criminal to gain access and control over the computer
system.

 

5.    
Loss of evidence

Loss
of evidence is a very common & obvious problem as all the data are routinely
destroyed.

Further
collection of data outside the territorial extent also paralyses this system of
crime investigation.

 

 

 

 

 

IMPACT
OF CYBERCRIME AGAINST INDIVIDUALS:

Cybercrimes
committed against people include various crimes like transmission of child pornography
and harassment through e-mail. The trafficking, distribution, posting, and
dissemination of obscene material including pornography constitute one of the
most important cybercrimes known today. Cyber harassment is a distinct
cybercrime. Harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or other. This also
brings us to another related area–violation of citizen which is a crime of
grave nature.

 

Harassment via
e-mails

Harassment
through e-mails is not a new concept. It is very similar to harassing through
letters.

Bangladesh
police recently has taken plan to set up a special unit to curb cybercrimes.
The matter has become more urgent since an e-mail message was sent to Bengali
daily Prothom Alo, issuing a life threat to Awami League president and Leader
of Opposition Sheikh Hasina on August 23, 2004.

Another
mail was sent to the police headquarters Aug 25, threatening Prime Minister
Khaleda Zia, her son Tarique Rahman and Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP)
lawmakers12.The police department took the mails seriously and decided to set
up a cybercrime control unit, which will be the country’s first policing unit
against cybercrime. Two young men, a private university student and a software
engineer, were arrested in connection with the e-mail threatening the prime
minister and another youth for threatening Sheikh Hasina. The first two have
reportedly said that they had sent the mail for fun. As there is no nationwide
computer infrastructure, no watchdog or security system has yet been developed
in Bangladesh.

 

Cyber-stalking

The
Oxford dictionary defines stalking as “pursuing stealthily”. Cyber
stalking involves following a person’s movements across the Internet by posting
messages (sometimes threatening) on the bulletin boards frequented by the
victim, entering the chat-rooms frequented by the victim, constantly bombarding
the victim with emails etc.

 

Pornography

Pornography
on the net may take various forms. It may include the hosting of website containing
these prohibited materials. Use of computers for producing these obscene
materials and download through the Internet, obscene materials. These obscene
matters may cause harm to the mind of the adolescent and tend to deprave or
corrupt their mind. Two known cases of pornography are the Delhi Bal Bharati
case and the Bombay case wherein two Swiss couple used to force the slum
children for obscene photographs. The Mumbai police later arrested them.

 

Defamation

It
is an act of imputing any person with intent to lower the person in the estimation
of the right thinking members of society generally or to cause him to be
shunned or avoided or to expose him to hatred, contempt or ridicule. Cyber defamation
is not different from conventional defamation except the involvement of a
virtual medium. E.g. the mail account of Rohit was hacked and some mails were
sent from his account to some of his batch mates regarding his affair with a
girl with intent to defame him.

 

 

 

 

 

Fraud &
Cheating

Online
fraud and cheating is one of the most lucrative businesses that are growing
today in the cyber space. It may assume different forms. Some of the cases of online
fraud and cheating that have come to light are those pertaining to credit card
crimes, contractual crimes, offering jobs, etc.

Recently
the Court of Metropolitan Magistrate Delhi found guilty a 24-year-old engineer
working in a call centre, of fraudulently gaining the details of Campa’s credit
card and bought a television and a cordless phone from Sony website. Metropolitan
magistrate Gulshan Kumar convicted Azim for cheating under IPC, but did not
send him to jail. Instead, Azim was asked to furnish a personal bond of Rs
20,000, and was released on a year’s probation.

 

IMPACT
OF CYBERCRIME AGAINST ORGANIZATIONS:

Unauthorized
Control/Access over Computer System

This
activity is commonly referred to as hacking. The Indian law has however given a
different connotation to the term hacking, so we will not use the term
“unauthorized access” interchangeably with the term
“hacking” to prevent confusion as the term used in the Act of 2000 is
much wider than hacking.

 

Possession of
unauthorized information

In
June 2003, Cyber pirates hacked into the Internet account of Barisal DC office
marking the first cybercrime in the Barisal region. The computer hacking
incident was revealed after the DC office received a heavily bloated Internet
bill and lodged a complaint with the Bangladesh Telegraph and

Telephone
Board (BTTB), which is the internet service provider for the DC office. The
hackers, who somehow got hold of the password of the account, accessed it from
several places in town including an IT firm, residences of an ADC and a joint
secretary, and a Pharmaceutical company.

 

Software Pirate
and Copyright

Results
of an anonymous experiment conducted on more than 4,800 students in San Diego
were presented at the American Psychological Association conference. It says
that 38 percent of teenagers were involved in software piracy. In the context
of Bangladesh most of the computer users are in the habit of using pirated software.

 

Financial
Institutions are at risk

Bangladesh’s
financial institutions are at risk from hackers. In the country financial
institutions have introduced various online features like online banking, stock
exchange transactions but are not able to provide the highest security. Source
said the cyber criminal networks through Internet have attacked our country’s
technology infrastructure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IMPACT
OF CYBERCRIME AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT:

Cyber
terrorism is one distinct kind of crime in this category. The growth of internet
has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by individuals and groups
to threaten the international governments as also to terrorize the citizens of
a country. This crime manifests itself into terrorism when an individual
“cracks” into a government or military maintained website. In a
report of it was said that internet was becoming a boon for the terrorist
organizations.

 

Cyber terrorism
against the government organization

At
this juncture a necessity may be felt that is the need to distinguish between cyber
terrorism and cybercrime. Both are criminal acts. However there is a compelling
need to distinguish between both these crimes. A cyber crime is generally a
domestic issue, which may have international consequences; however cyber terrorism
is a global concern, which has domestic as well as international consequences.
The common form of these terrorist attacks on the Internet is by distributed
denial of service attacks, hate websites and hate emails, attacks on sensitive
computer networks, etc. Technology savvy terrorists are using 512-bit
encryption, which is next to impossible to decrypt. The recent example may be
cited of – Osama Bin Laden, the LTTE, attack on America’s army deployment
system during Iraq war. Cyber terrorism may be defined to be ” the premeditated
use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, in cyber space, with the
intention to further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives,
or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives”. Another definition
may be attempted to cover within its ambit every act of cyber terrorism. A
terrorist means a person who indulges in wanton killing of persons or in violence
or in disruption of services or means of communications essential to the
community or in damaging property with the view to –

(i)               
putting
the public or any section of the public in fear; or

(ii)            
(ii)
affecting adversely the harmony between different religious, racial, language
or regional groups or castes or communities; or

(iii)          
coercing
or overawing the government established by law; or

(iv)          
 endangering the sovereignty and integrity of
the nation and a cyber terrorist is the person who uses the computer system as
a means or ends to achieve the above objectives. Every act done in pursuance thereof
is an act of cyber terrorism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some
New Dimensions as Remedy against Cyber Crime:

No
doubt technological defense is better than legal remedy in preventing hitech
crimes, but there is always a chance of destruction of such defenses as these
are not of perpetual nature. People who are more advance in technology than us
can smash the security wall anytime. So, legal and other related remedies are
obligatory to fight the war against the said circumstances. In addition to the
present remedies the state can commence some new course of actions which are
being trailed by some developed hi-tech state of the world. Let us have a
glance at their features:

I) Constitutional Safeguard: Bangladesh
is a country of constitutional supremacy. Constitution plays the mother role in
preserving and ensuring the rights and duties of both the state as well as the
mass people. Constitutional provisions against cyber crimes may escort the
cyber warfare to a national temperament which may result in a better form than
any other organizational and legal remedy. Constitutional amendment may be the
introducing procedure of such provisions.

II) Special Wing of Police: For a
digital Bangladesh, we need to equip our law enforcement agencies with training
and technology to ensure peaceful cyber cloud. Cyber criminals are not the
rivals of any specific country or of a region; rather they are the common
enemies of the world. Citizens of the 21st century need to fight
together against their common enemies. The rise of cyber crime insists the law
enforcers to work as global police rather than regional or national police
only. The Police Force through global partnership need to be able to meet the
challenges of the technology to curb all crimes including Cyber Crime. U.K.,
U.S.A, India, Malaysia and some other developed countries have established
special wings of police to combat the cyber war. Bangladesh can initiate such
special police wings as a new armament against hi-tech threats along with other
deterrent actions.

III) Cyber Crime Agency by
Government: On the last 23rd July of 2009 North Korea twisted ‘Korea
Internet and Security agency’25, a government agency uniting three of its preceding
internet technology organizations. Now, this agency will endeavor to make North
Korea a stronger and a safe advanced country in using internet. India and some
other countries have also created such agencies. Considering the present
situation of using internet and increasing cyber crime in Bangladesh,
Government can also commence such types of agencies. The worth of such agencies
is that these will be able to perform multidimensional actions like advancing
the internet infrastructure, maintaining the ISPs, fixing the internet using
charges, preventing the cyber threats etc.

 

IV) Watch Dog Group: These groups
are enormously internet like the security oriented intelligence. They include
capturing and receiving malicious software, disassembling, sandboxing, and analyzing
viruses and trojans, monitoring and reporting on malicious attackers,
disseminating cyber threat information etc. This doggy concept is not a new
one. ‘Shadow Server

Foundation’
can be an example of Watch Dog Groups which was established in 2004. These may
be individual as well as governmental. At present there is no such organization
in Bangladesh, but in consideration with the escalating cyber threats, these
doggy groups can be one of the vital constituents for developing Bangladesh as
an advanced country especially in internet technology.

V) Public Awareness: This course
is no less important than technological precautionary actions, because most of
the time common people become the victims of cyber threats and millions of
computers are crashed away. So if it is possible to aware the populace about
the nature, possible impairment and the antidote of the threats, it would be
more convenient to defeat cyber criminals as well as save the virtual world and
government can play the crucial role here. Like other vital issues, the
government should create awareness among the mass people all over the country
through different

 

CONCLUSION:

Basically, no notable cyber crime
has yet been committed in Bangladesh. The gradual dependence and extensive use
of computer and information technology by the financial institutions like bank,
insurance company, and other non-government organizations increase the fear of
commission of cyber crime here. Computer has been used as a tool of crime like
making forged certificates and documents for a number of years in Bangladesh
though the incident of targeting computer or computer system is very unusual.