4.6.1 Current insulation condition:

The plant had very badly insulated piping system. Its insulation was done 2 years ago and at present the condition of steam pipe insulation is very poor.

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The figure 4.9 shows a photograph piping system. It is visible from picture that insulation is bad and needs repairing and also at some places insulation is missing, causing great heat loss. Glasswool used as a insulator and many places in pipes where the material is not available and it leads to the loss in the heat. So we have collected the data about different insulation material. Also we have given list of local insulation carrying consultancy. Here are some insulation material properties

Fig 4.9 Photograph of part of steam distribution system

Function of insulation are:

• To conserve energy to avoid heat loss or heat gain
• To maintain temperature of system
• To avoid heat loss from heat carrying fluid
• To stop condensation
• To avoid corrosion or exposure to corrosive atmosphere as well as fire
• Process with good efficiency like heating, ventilation and cooling.
• To absorb noise from the mechanical equipment.

Selection of insulation material is very critical and following points should be considered.

Very important. The following design and installation considerations must be noted:
• Type of insulation that is rigid, flexible, ease of handling, installation, and adjustment.
• Ease to modify, repair, and alter.
• Requirement of skilled and unskilled labor.
• Safety & environment considerations.
• Weight of insulation material and density of same
• Replacement and removal should be easy
• Performance of material.

4.6.2 Heat Gain / Loss from Cylindrical Surfaces like Pipes

To evaluate the heat gain or loss from the cylindrical surfaces it has different equation from than the equation for the flat surfaces. The heat will be transferred to pipe wall through the flowing material and after that heat will be absorbed by the atmosphere. In case of insulation the heat dissipation will be less in atmosphere.
It is not possible to calculate exact amount of heat dissipated since it is affected by:

• Color, texture, and shape of the casing.
• Vertical or horizontal orientation of the casing.
• Air movement or wind speed over the casing.
• Exposure to thermal radiation, e.g. sunlight – all of these in addition to the temperature
• Parameters, etc.

Because of the number of complicating factors, generalizations must be utilized. The theoretical methods for calculating heat transfer for pipe or any other cylindrical objects like tanks, is depends on the thickness of insulation and the area of outer surface.


              Developing a realistic career plan
in my years of school is essential for personal growth and goal achievement. The
purpose of this paper is to use the Donner-Wheeler Career Planning and
Development Model to assist in building my nursing career goal and prepare for
job seeking.

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Career Vision and Goal

                 I walk out of my apartment in
Downtown Toronto on a bright and early morning. I am a surgical nurse working
at Toronto General Hospital, a world renown organization committed to the
health of patients, research and education. I work in the General Surgery
Inpatient Unit, as I care for complex patients whom require critical thinking
skills. I work with highly-skilled and supportive professionals who ensure quality
client-centered care. My goal is to specialize in perioperative nursing. As I am
a firm believer in continuous learning, I am constantly involved in many
projects held, as I contribute towards the betterment of this unit. My peers
describe me as a passionate nurse who is an active listener in patient care, while
establishing therapeutic nurse-client relationships. At the end of the day I
walk home, reflecting on the differences I’ve made in patients’ lives, as well
as what I can improve on for the next day.  


            Being enrolled in the
nursing program, I have learned a lot about myself and how I have changed from the
first day of class. My values, however are the same and have helped me enhance
my skills in clinical practice. To start off, one of my crucial values is
cultural competence. I personally believe in a “no-judgement zone”, as I like
to put my biases aside with people. This has been beneficial towards my
clinical experience, as I was able to build trust between myself and patients
as well as their families. My experience working in the surgical inpatient
unit, was definitely the most meaningful to me, as I had learned to build
resilience and